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The American Holocaust Versus The Jewish Holocaust

The American Holocaust Versus The Jewish Holocaust

“The American Holocaust” Of Indigenous People

Dare to Compare: Americanizing the Holocaust by LILLIAN FREEBERG

“For several centuries now, men of the White and JEWISH race have everywhere destroyed the past, stupidly, blindly, and deliberately both at home and abroad. The past once destroyed never returns. The destruction of the past is perhaps the greatest of all crimes. Today the preservation of what little of it remains ought to become almost an obsession. We must put an end to the terrible uprootedness which European colonial methods always produce, even uder their least cruel aspects. We must abstain, once victory ours, from punishing the conquered enemy by uprooting him still further: seeing that it is neither possible nor desirable to exterminate him.”
Simone Weil, The Need for Roots: Prelude to a Declaration of Duties Towards Mankind
The Dynamics of Denial: Uncle Sam’s Willing Executioners

German-speaking Jewish writers have long felt comfortable expropriating images and analogies from the site of Native American identity in their literary imagination. 1 Today, a growing sentiment of sympathy for the “vanishing American” in Germany has upped the ante in the identity-appropriations game, and German-speaking Jewish writers now appropriate Native American identity in the attempt to inflect their own historiography with an added degree of moral currency on the landscape of a contemporary Germany still caught in the throes of denial concerning its own genocidal past.

In German-speaking literary circles, the examples of Else Lasker-Schüler, who stylized herself as an American Indian, and Franz Kafka’s wish to be a “Red Indian” are well known. George Tabori’s 1990 stage production of the Jewish Western Weisman und Rotgesicht wittily pitted [Jewish] white man against [partly Jewish] red man in a verbal duel in which the protagonists exchange a hilarious blow-for-blow account of injuries and insults suffered by the victimized [End Page 353] populations they represent. But the phenomenon of conflating Jewish and “Indian” identity is not unique to foreign-language publications. As Seth Wolitz points out, in his discussion of Weisman und Rotgesicht, this “tradition of spoofing Jewish-Indian interrelations . . . reaches back to a Yiddish playlet, Tsvishn Indianer.” 2 This 1895 play, “Among the Indians, or The Country Peddler,” as its translator states, “is not an anomaly, but rather a pathbreaker in a well-defined line of Jewish-American entertainment that leads to the films of Mel Brooks and others.” 3 The American leg of this lineage includes Eddie Cantor’s redface minstrelsy in Whoopie! (1930) and Woody Allen’s Zelig (1983). Fanny Brice sang herself to stardom with “I’m an Indian,” and Bernard Malamud’s The People provides a classic example of the phenomenon.

Most recently perhaps, Raphael Seligmann has gone on record stating that the Jews are “the Indians of Germany.” 4 That this statement begs the question of identifying “Uncle Sam’s willing executioners” seems, however, of minimal concern to the Jewish community in America and abroad. In fact, when the time comes to put the Shoah on the other foot and parallels are drawn between atrocities experienced by the American Indian population over a five-hundred-year period and those experienced by the Jewish population of Europe in the twelve-year reign of Nazi terror, the knowledge of self-described “Jewish Indians” recedes into the recesses of repressed memory. In a seditious reversal of national identity politics, Lucy Dawidowicz charges those who would dare to compare with “a vicious anti-Americanism.” 5 Rabbi Irving Greenberg, founder of the Holocaust Resource Center and first director of the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Commission, has described the comparison of the Nazi Holocaust with other acts of genocide as “blasphemous.” 6 In The Holocaust in American Life, Jewish historian Peter Novik describes the way in which any attempt to compare is dismissed as a “felonious assault” on truth and memory. 7

In the pathological dynamic of genocidal histories, the perpetrator culture invariably turns its gaze to the horrors registered in the archives and accounts of the “other guys.” 8 This is why Holocaust studies in the United States focus almost exclusively on the atrocity of Auschwitz, not of Wounded Knee or Sand Creek. Norman Finkelstein, in his discussion of the way images of the Holocaust have been manufactured to reap moral and economic benefits for members of the Jewish elite, states that the presence of the Holocaust Museum in Washington is “particularly incongruous in the absence of a museum commemorating crimes in the course of American history” and makes specific reference to the slave trade and genocide against the American Indians. 9 Peter Novik suggests that the Holocaust has become a sort of “civil religion” for American Jews who have lost touch with their own ethnic and religious identity, and asserts that “in the United States the Holocaust is explicitly used for the purpose of national self-congratulation: the Americanization of the Holocaust [End Page 354] has involved using it to demonstrate the difference between the Old World and the New, and to celebrate, by showing its negation, the American way of life.” 10

The Historikerstreit or “Historians’ Debate” in Germany during the mid-1980s disrupted the traditional historiographical narrative, which placed three groups of actors at the scene of the Nazi crime–perpetrators, bystanders, and victims. Saul Friedländer summarizes the controversy as “a debate about the shape of the past in terms of public memory and national identity.” 11 Conservative historians, in their efforts to “historicize” the Nazi period and thus suture the wound of discontinuity presented by a “past that refused to go away,” attempted to relativize the crimes of the Nazi period by situating them in the context of a narrative that included an amalgamated fourth character in the plot: the Soviet and American forces who forced Germans into a victim position from which only further victimization could ensue. These abnegationist attempts at historical revision were staunchly contested by left-wing social philosopher Jürgen Habermas in a series of essays that have since been collected and published in German and in English. 12

The Historians’ Debate directed international attention to the issue of historical liability as it relates to public memory and national identity in territories known to have been host to genocidal campaigns. However, what got lost in translation when the debate migrated to America was the very real opportunity this controversy might have presented for an authentic “working through” or “mastery” of this country’s traumatic genocidal past. Instead, the dispute conveniently constructed a site of transference upon which the melancholic drama of “manifest manners” could be acted out. 13 American intellectuals, confronted with the quandary of whether to see or not to see, chose to look the other way. George Tabori, in “Hamlet in Blue,” provides an apt metaphor for this dynamic of denial: “the old Hamletian ploy of dodging action by mind-fucking.” 14 As Henryk Broder points out in “Die Germanisierung des Holocaust,” today one speaks of the “Americanization of the Holocaust” as though the Jews were slaughtered on American soil. 15 This, in turn, cultivates fertile breeding ground for absolutionist scholarship and public discourse on both sides of the Atlantic. In the end, only the interests of the respective aggressor cultures are served.

The same kinds of arguments attempting to “historicize” America’s past in the interest of “normalizing” its present from the perspective of the perpetrator population do not unleash the same scandalous international controversy as do similar efforts on the part of historians negotiating a revision of German history. The genocide against the Jews is considered an ugly chapter in Germany’s past and acknowledged internationally as one of the gravest crimes against humanity in the twentieth century. But while the whole fabric of German culture remains “under the shadow of Hitler,” the genocide against indigenous [End Page 355] populations in North America is still today denied or dismissed as the inevitable prelude to the rise of the greatest nation on Earth.

Reactionary historian James Axtell, in his 1992 study, Beyond 1492: Encounters in Colonial North America, writes:
We make a hash of our historical judgments because we continue to feel guilty about the real or imagined sins of our fathers and forefathers . . . [We] can stop flogging ourselves with our “imperialistic” origins and tarring ourselves with the broad brush of “genocide.” As a huge nation of law and order and increasingly refined sensibility, we are not guilty of murdering Indian women and babies, of branding slaves on the forehead, or of claiming any real estate in the world we happen to fancy. 16

Statements like this, when proffered in defense of Germany’s genocidal history, elicit vehement opposition from the academic and intellectual community, yet, with regard to America’s tragic past, go virtually unchallenged and are integrated into the canon of acceptable discourse.

As the success of Daniel Jonah Goldhagen’s indictment of the German people in Hitler’s Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust illustrates, public flogging of the German people for their willing participation in the melee represents an acceptable and indeed lucrative form of public and academic discourse. The 1996 publication of Goldhagen’s Ph.D. dissertation thrust the previously little-known Harvard professor into the international limelight. His thesis, that widespread “eliminationist anti-Semitism” among the ordinary men and women of Germany, not the ruthless racial policies of the Nazi regime, was the sole cause of the extermination of the Jews, has been contested by Holocaust scholars and historians the world over. But the book, translated into thirteen languages, became an international bestseller and secured for Goldhagen the prestigious German Democracy Prize in 1997. It also unleashed an international debate that has been dubbed “The Goldhagen Wars,” not to mention a series of highly paid speaking engagements for its author throughout the world. Goldhagen’s staunchest opponent has been Norman Finkelstein, the Jewish scholar whose rebuttal of “the Goldhagen thesis” first appeared in The New Left Review (July/August 1997) under the title “Daniel Goldhagen’s ‘Crazy’ Thesis.” 17 In a statement printed by the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette on 21 April 1998, Goldhagen proudly asserts: “My book has sold more copies in Germany than anywhere else. It’s been embraced by the German people.” It is interesting to note, in this context, that Native American scholar Ward Churchill’s stellar and seminal piece of scholarship on Holocaust and denial in the Americas, A Little Matter of Genocide, did not meet with the same degree of public success. [End Page 356]

Taking the American people to task in the little matter of genocide against indigenous populations of North America remains a terrible taboo registered in the “Don’t you Dare” category of “Academic Do’s and Don’ts.” Like any taboo, this act of transgression does not derive from a vacuum but rather emanates from a specific social consciousness–or lack thereof. As journalist William Greider notes in One World, Ready or Not: The Manic Logic of Global Capitalism:

German social consciousness was anchored in the country’s tragic knowledge of guilt and defeat, a humbling encounter with self-doubt that Americans have so far evaded in their national history. . . . American history did provide ample basis for humility and social introspection: slavery and the enduring wounds of race, “winning” the West by armed conquest, Hiroshima and the nuclear potential for mass destruction, the bloody failure of the neocolonialist war in Vietnam. . . . The social meaning of these experiences was usually deflected, however, and repackaged by the optimistic American culture as stories of triumph. . . . Thus, Americans generally managed to evade any national sense of guilt or defeat. Critical reflection on the national character was discouraged, ridiculed as “un-American.” 18

Dominick LaCapra has established a clear relationship between the implications of the Historians’ Debate for American scholars and objections raised by German scholars on the left-wing side of the skirmish. He states that liberal historians may have had strategic as well as more deep-seated philosophical reasons for not placing too much emphasis on the ambivalence of Western traditions and the possibly dubious role of a critique of revisionism in lessening awareness of the implication of other Western countries in massively destructive or even genocidal processes. Given the history of the United States, this danger is clear and present for an American, and identification with Habermas’s position may be facilitated by the narcissistic and self-justificatory gains it brings. 19

But even before the Historians’ Debate, the relative singularity of the Nazi Holocaust had long been the center of international debate. Uniqueness proponents such as Deborah Lipstadt, Steven Katz, Saul Friedländer, Michael Marrus, Yehuda Bauer, Lucy Dawidowicz, and others share an insistence on the exclusivity of the Nazi Holocaust as an unparalleled event in the history of the twentieth century. This view has been challenged by survivors and scholars, among them a number of Jewish intellectuals such as Hannah Arendt, Irving Louis Horowitz, Israel Charny, Helen Fein, Simon Wiesenthal, Norman Finkelstein, Peter Novik, and others. Increasingly, Native American scholars and their allies have entered the conversation, pointing out that the historical [End Page 357] archive of the American Holocaust has been compiled, collated, and indeed constructed to a large degree by perpetrators, their descendants, and beneficiaries writing from a subject position inflected with a vested interest in maintaining the illusion of innocence concerning the “facts of the case.”

The exclusivists’ most compelling argument against the comparability of the two acts of genocide has been that the decimation of the American Indian population, unlike the extermination of the Jews, was unintentional–“caused by microbes, not militia . . . that is, this depopulation happened unwittingly rather than by design.” 20 Preeminent uniqueness proponent Steven Katz, in The Holocaust in Historical Context, while documenting the fact that the American Holocaust far exceeded the Nazi Holocaust in scope, at the same time reduces the American travesty to a mere case of “depopulation.” 21

These conclusions are drawn from comparisons not of a simple corpse count but rather of the rate of extermination experienced by each group. Recent studies demonstrate that precontact population estimates generated by historians and demographers from the subject position of the perpetrators have been egregiously low. It is today commonly assumed that precontact populations were far and above the one-million figure that has acted as a standard of measure for centuries. More recent and more honest studies estimate the precontact civilization to have been between nine and eighteen million. This standard of measure puts the rate of attrition of indigenous populations at between 98 and 99 percent–that is, near total extermination. The rate of attrition of Jewish populations in Europe is commonly calculated at between 60 and 65 percent. Put in terms of survival rates, this means that two-thirds of the global Jewish population and about one third of the European Jewish population survived the Nazi Holocaust, whereas a mere remnant population of 1 to 2 percent survived the American Holocaust. This seriously calls into question any notion of “unparalleled” or “total extermination” of the Jews in the Nazi Holocaust.

Katz argues that the Nazi Holocaust is “phenomenologically” unique based on the “merciless, exceptionless, biocentric intentionality of Hitler’s ‘war against the Jews.’” 22 Katz’s argument centers on documented intentionality and governmental policy in the Nazi period. What Katz does not take into account is that a twelve-year period in a twentieth-century industrialized society lends itself more readily to documentation than a five-hundred-year period, most of which is historically and geographically situated in the midst of a pre-industrial “virgin wasteland,” nor does he significantly engage the discourse generated by Native American scholars in recent years. It does not, however, take a paragon of intellectual prowess to deduce an implied intent to “destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group,” from the events that transpired in the process of “depopulating” the New World–a slaughter that Katz patently refuses to define as “genocide” even though it conforms precisely to [End Page 358] the definition of the phenomenon as outlined by Raphael Lemkin, who coined the term in his 1944 Axis Rule in Occupied Europe. 23 The murder of 96 percent of any given population does not occur “inadvertently,” especially when members of that group are viewed by their assassins as belonging to a separate (and inferior) national, ethnic, racial and religious order.

Furthermore, there is evidence to suggest that the introduction of diseases to the Native populations of North America was anything but an incidental by-product of “westward expansion.” In what is likely the world’s first documented case of genocide accomplished by bacterial means, Lord Jeffrey Amherst suggested that smallpox-infected blankets be distributed to the Ottawa and Lenape peoples, stating in a 1763 letter to his subordinate, Colonel Henry Bouquet, “You will do well to [infect] the Indians by means of blankets as well as to try every other method that can serve to extirpate this [execrable] race.” 24

This statement indicates that the annihilation of the Indian population by way of disease was neither arbitrary nor incidental to the aims of the European settler population and its government. Even as early as 1763, the settler population and its sovereign representatives acted in full cognizance of the impact their introduction of disease would have on the Native populations. Stannard points out, with regard to the “enemy microbe” argument, that by focusing almost entirely on disease, by displacing responsibility for the mass killing onto an army of invading microbes, contemporary authors increasingly have created the impression that the eradication of those tens of millions of people was inadvertent–a sad, but both inevitable and “unintended consequence” of human migration and progress. This is a modern version of what Alexander Saxton recently has described as the “soft side of anti-Indian racism” that emerged in America in the nineteenth century and that incorporated “expressions of regret over the fate of the Indians into narratives that traced the inevitability of their extinction. Ideologically,” Saxton adds, “the effect was to exonerate individuals, parties, nations, of any moral blame for what history had decreed.” In fact, however, the near-total destruction of the Western Hemisphere’s Native people was neither inadvertent nor inevitable. 25

Survivor testimony and statistical records from the Nazi death camps reveal that the uncontrolled spread of disease among inmates was also a major factor contributing to the death toll during the Nazi Holocaust, but that argument has never been forwarded in favor of exonerating the perpetrators–at least not in serious scholarship on the subject.

If, as Yehuda Bauer contends, “[t]here was no governmental intention to exterminate the victim population” in the Americas, how else are we to understand the now well-known statement attributed to General Philip Henry Sheridan at [End Page 359] Fort Cobb in January of 1889: “The only good Indian is a dead Indian?” 26 While Bauer concedes that “important figures in the U.S. administration expressed genocidal hopes and intentions,” he still insists that “there was no clear governmental policy of total murder.” 27 It would seem redundant, in this context, to point to the innumerable studies that have been conducted since 1945 in the attempt to ascertain whether or not Adolf Hitler himself had issued the order for the Final Solution.

The introduction of diseases to indigenous populations was accompanied by a systematic destruction of “the indigenous agricultural base [in order to] impose starvation conditions upon entire peoples, dramatically lowering their resistance to disease and increasing their susceptibility to epidemics.” 28 What is more, the ideology of Manifest Destiny is itself founded on an implied intent to kill–it is the “central constituent ideology translated into action” that Bauer posits as the defining characteristic that sets the Nazi Holocaust apart from all other genocidal campaigns in the history of humanity.

Fortunately, pseudo-scholarly revisionists who would deny the Nazi atrocities have been properly (and legally) excluded from legitimate academic and public discourse in many countries–Germany, Austria, France and Canada among them. But, As Ward Churchill has argued in A Little Matter of Genocide: Holocaust and Denial in the Americas 1492–Present: “the ugly enterprise of Holocaust denial has a flip side–indeed, a mirror image–which is equally objectionable but which has been anything but marginalized by the academy, popular media, or the public at large.” 29 According to Churchill, exclusivists insisting on the uniqueness of the Nazi Holocaust succeed in “outstripping the neo-nazis” in terms of denial:

Whereas the latter content themselves with denying the authenticity of a single genocidal process, exclusivists deny, categorically and out of hand, the validity of myriad genocides. Yet, unlike the neonazis, those holding to the postulates of Jewish exclusivism are not only treated as being academically credible, but are accorded a distinctly preferential treatment among the arbiters of scholarly integrity. 30

Manifest Destiny: My Brothers’ Killer

Cogent arguments have been made to suggest that the same notion of creating space for the “master race” is as germane to the ideological framework of Hitler’s Lebensraumpolitik as it is to the U.S. government’s doctrine of Manifest Destiny: In each instance, the extermination of “inferior races” is justified in the interest of making way for a “superior race” of peoples. 31 According to [End Page 360] Hitler biographer John Toland, the Führer is known to have “expressed admiration for the ‘efficiency’ of the American genocide campaign against the Indians, viewing it as a forerunner for his own plans and programs.” 32 Even Steven Katz concedes that the “depopulation of the New World” was a “salient precursor” to the Nazi Holocaust. 33 Thus, the American Holocaust might be viewed as the prototype for the extermination of the Jews in Europe. At the very least, the event must be seen as a predecessor to the Nazi Holocaust.

While Hitler’s policy of Lebensraumpolitik has been vilified and condemned for the toll it took in terms of human lives–even in the Historians’ Debate, the essential criminality and moral reprehensibility of the Nazi regime was not challenged–heroes are made of men in America whose words were inspired by the same kind of thinking and whose actions resulted in the murder of millions of human beings considered to be members of “inferior” civilizations. Theodore Roosevelt, in The Strenuous Life, writes, in 1901:

Of course our whole national history has been one of expansion . . . That the barbarians recede or are conquered, with the attendant fact that peace follows their retrogression or conquest is due solely to the power of the mighty civilized races which have not lost the fighting instinct, and which by their expansion are gradually bringing peace to the red wastes where the barbarian peoples of this world hold sway. 34

Hannah Arendt, in the Origins of Totalitarianism, identifies metaphysical Jew-hatred as one element in the “subterranean stream of Western history” that subsequently translated into the political anti-Semitic consciousness in Europe and constituted the defining principle of Hitler’s Nazi regime. 35 Similarly, Richard Drinnon argues that the “national metaphysics of Indian-hating was central to the formation of national identity and political policy in the United States.” 36

The crucial issue at stake here is that, according to Drinnon’s analysis, this national metaphysics of Indian-hating rested on the “collective refusal to conceive of Native Americans as persons.” 37 Had the people of Europe–Jews and Gentiles alike–recognized these “barbarians” to be human entities and embraced them as siblings in the “family of man,” they might well have foreseen the fate that would befall civilized populations in Europe just a few short years later because, as Richard Drinnon points out in Facing West: The Metaphysics of Indian-Hating and Empire Building:

The sober truth was that the white man’s burden of Winning the West was crushing global folly. The West was quite literally nowhere–or everywhere, which was to say the same thing. For Homer’s Greeks and North American tribal peoples alike, the West was the land beyond, Spiritland, the land of [End Page 361] mystery, of death and of life eternal. It was not a Dark and bloody Ground to be “won.” But for Anglo-Americans it was exactly that, the latest conquest. Yet how could they conclusively “win” it? If the West was at bottom a form of society [as James Turner contended in “The Problem of the West”] then on our round earth, Winning the West amounted to no less than winning the world. It could be finally and decisively “won” only by rationalizing (Americanizing, Westernizing, modernizing) the world, and that meant conquering the land beyond, banishing mystery, and negating or extirpating other peoples, so the world would be subject to the regimented reason of one settlement culture with its professedly self-evident middle-class values. 38

Hitler’s Lebensraumpolitik was not without precedent or parallel. Four centuries after Columbus, the ideology of a master race had firmly established itself on American soil. A “color line” had been drawn, and it was clear that, in the national consciousness as in public policy, “Native Americans were natives and not Americans . . . the irreducible prerequisite of being an American, was to be of European stock.” 39 The color line drawn between the

Children of Light, the light of the Gospel, of Enlightenment institutions, law and order, progress, philanthropy, freedom, Americanization, modernization, forced urbanization . . . and the Children of Darkness, “savages” who stood in the way of the redemption and the rationalization of the world . . . unmistakably shaped national patterns of violence by establishing whom one could kill under propitious circumstances and thereby represented a prime source of the American way of inflicting death. 40

The hidden narratives of the master race and Manifest Destiny governing our understanding of American history distort perceptions of our own historiography. The ideology of Manifest Destiny–the fantasy and the fancy of the master race–is transferred from one generation to another so that there is no need for the kind of propaganda machinery required to make “willing executioners” of “ordinary men” and women in Germany. Americans, in their drive to forge “one Nation under God,” fought with “God on their side.” 41 Stannard, in this regard, explains that the Eurocentric racial contempt for the indigenous peoples . . . reflected in scholarly writings of this sort is now so complete and second nature to most Americans that it has passed into popular lore and common knowledge of the “every schoolboy knows” variety. No intent to distort the truth is any longer necessary. All that is required, once the model is established, is the recitation of rote learning as it passes from one uncritical generation to the next. 42 [End Page 362]

Giorgio Agamben has argued against the use of the term Holocaust as a descriptor for the Nazi extermination of the Jews because “Jews were exterminated not in a mad and giant holocaust but exactly as Hitler had announced, ‘as lice,’ which is to say as bare life.” 43 The notorious California Indian-killer H. L. Hall justified the murder of Native infants based on the argument that “a nit would make a louse.” John Chivington, commanding colonel in the infamous Sand Creek Massacre, reformulated the sentiment to justify similar actions with the statement “Nits make lice.” 44 Perplexing in this context is that Hitler’s perception of the Jews as “life unworthy of living,” that is, as “lice” or “bare life,” is received with moral outrage in the scholarly community and in public consciousness in the U.S. and elsewhere. But when Indians are placed on the same level of the “evolutionary scale” and assigned the same status in the biopolitical order, it becomes a justifiable sacrifice made in the name of “progress.”

Hitler’s willing executioners and the ordinary men and women of Germany had to be convinced that the Jewish population was not human; they had, after all, for centuries prior, lived and worked side by side with these people who were systematically exterminated as “like lice.”

Before the Final Solution could be implemented, the Jewish population of Europe had to be reduced to the level of “bare life.” But for the American settlers, the notion that the life form to be clear-cut from the vast, “unpopulated” wilderness in order to make way for their American way of life was somehow not human ranked among those truths held to be self-evident; the “execrable race” of red men and women was viewed from the very onset as existing at the level of “bare life.”

And yet, from a perspective that acknowledges the essential humanity of indigenous populations and the sophistication of the established forms of social organization, governance, and religious ritual prevailing among the indigenous populations at the time of contact, it becomes clear that, while the Nazi Holocaust was indeed unique in scope and in kind to the twentieth century, the American Holocaust was, as Stannard has stated, “far and away, the most massive act of genocide in the history of the world.” 45

Fortunately, Hitler was stopped before he could consummate the Final Solution. But some contend that Uncle Sam’s willing executioners are still today engaged in the effort to eradicate what remains of the indigenous population in North America. For others, the loss of Native lives and lifeways cannot be acknowledged as homicidal, genocidal, or suicidal because the “savage” is not–however ostentatiously liberal-minded individuals and institutions in this country may contend otherwise–considered fully human: “we” are not related. While a revisionist narrative of the West would attempt to suffuse its world-view with a politically correct moral underpinning by making superficial [End Page 363] linguistic concessions, no longer applying such terms as “savage” and “primitive” to indigenous peoples, contemporary scholarship still draws its insights and impulses from the same body of research and the same doctrine of universal superiority it now seeks to disavow and revile. The appearance of euphemisms such as “ethnocide” and “depopulation” applied to the genocide committed against Native populations is just one index of the continued resistance to the notion that this devastation involves a human tragedy.

Nominally, indigenous peoples have been grudgingly adopted into the “family of man” in the prevailing paradigms of Western thought. Phenomenologically, they are still today perceived not as human others, but in fact as a separate (and inferior) “species.” Depending on one’s interpretation of the Latin siluaticus (of the wood; belonging to a wood), from which the term “savage” is derived, one might suspect that, in the Western biopolitical order, the “savage life” acquires the status of one less than bare life or Homo sacer. If that is the case, then what occurred in this country must be viewed as a gigantic bonfire in which neither mice, lice, nor men, women or children were sacrificed and burned for the sake of clear-cutting a space for the master race–what was sacrificed here were merely logs. Driftwood. Dead weight. Useless waste. In the world of the uniqueness proponents, the “depopulation” of the New World is on a par with “deforestation.”

What is perhaps “unique” about the Nazi Holocaust is that it represents the first incidence in history of genocidal assault directed at an assimilated, “civilized” (and therefore human) population in central Europe. 46 Katz refers to the phenomenon as one of “Judeocide.” It might, however, more accurately be termed fratricide–brothers killing brothers–squabbling sons of the same God in a serial rerun of Cain and Abel. This is not to imply that fratricide is any less grievous a crime against humanity than genocide, merely to clarify the relationship of spiritual kinship existing between perpetrators and victims in the Nazi Holocaust and the way this works to influence our perception of the event’s primacy. It could in fact be argued that fratricide is indeed the more heinous crime since it involves the extermination of life that is clearly defined as “human” in the Judeo-Christian paradigm. Brothers killing brothers is classified as a mortal sin by the religious doctrines governing moral standards in both religions, but brothers killing savages is apparently sanctioned by the moral dictates of both these dominant world religions. If the ideology of Manifest Destiny is, on the other hand, subsumed under the mandate to “be fruitful and multiply,” then the extermination of indigenous populations is indeed ordained by the supreme deity common to the Christian and the Judaic faiths. From this perspective, mass murder is the implied mandate of Manifest Destiny.

Churchill speaks in terms of the need for a “denazification . . . a fundamental alteration in the consciousness of this country.” 47 I would suggest that “de-manifestation” [End Page 364] is a more apt designation for the paradigmatic shift requisite for decentering the hegemonistic reign of the “master narratives” of Manifest Destiny and the master race that govern our understanding of history as it relates to national identity in the United States. Thinking in terms of “de-manifestation” has the advantage of disaggregating the specific modalities of similar, but not identical, historical phenomena and of dislocating–geographically and intellectually–the source of the “problem” from the site of European history to that of American history. What follows is an attendant shift in temporal focus that allows us to properly place the postulates of Manifest Destiny and the master race in historically correct chronological order with relation to the subsequent emergence of theories of Lebensraumpolitik and the assumed superiority of the Aryan race on the European continent. Whereas “de-nazification” clearly connotes a “thing of the past,” “de-manifestation” implies a present, “manifest” reality. From this vantage point, the German Sonderweg is rerouted and an already trammeled trail of rampant plundering, pillage, and mass murder is revealed to have been blazed in the forward wake of the historical caesura that the Nazi Holocaust represents.

Holocaust in Contemporary Context: Collective Suicide

Most importantly, perhaps, what distinguishes the American Holocaust from the Nazi Holocaust is what is at stake today. The Nazi Holocaust represents a historical event that threatened the entire Jewish population of Europe. Relegating this event to the archive of oblivion would involve a fatal miscalculation resulting in wholesale moral bankruptcy for the entire Western world. But the worldwide Jewish population can hardly be said to be at risk of extermination today–certainly not in the United States. American Jews stepped up their efforts to direct attention to the Nazi Holocaust at a time when they were by far the wealthiest, best-educated, most influential, in-every-way-most-successful group in American society–a group that, compared to most other identifiable minority groups, suffered no measurable discrimination and no disadvantages on account of that minority status. 48

Norman Finkelstein cites the Jewish income in the United States at double that of non-Jews and points out that sixteen of the forty wealthiest Americans are Jews, as are 40 percent of Nobel prizewinners in science and economics, 20 percent of professors at major universities and 40 percent of partners in law firms in New York and Washington. 49

Native Americans, by contrast, have long been subject to the most extreme poverty of any sector in the present North American population, and still have the highest rate of suicide of any other ethnic group on the continent. 50 High-school [End Page 365] dropout rates are as high as 70 percent in some communities. As Anishinabeg activist and Harvard-educated scholar Winona LaDuke notes with regard to the Lakota population in South Dakota: “Alcoholism, unemployment, suicide, accidental death and homicide rates are still well above the national average.” 51 Alcoholism, intergenerational posttraumatic stress, and a spate of social and economic ills continue to plague these communities in the aftermath of the American Holocaust.

As Peter Novik has made abundantly clear in his study of the way the Holocaust functions as a sort of “civil religion” and signifier of identity for American Jews, much of the commemoration rhetoric and practice propagated in this country centers on maintaining a consensual symbol of unity for American Jews who thus experience the Holocaust “vicariously.” As Novik states, while most American Jews (and Gentiles) may be saddened, dismayed, or shocked by the Nazi Holocaust, there is little evidence to suggest that they have actually been traumatized by it. 52

The Americanization of the Holocaust, according to Novik’s analysis, serves a symbolic function for American Jews, ascribing victim status to a community that demonstrates little sign of actual victimization in a culture where the victim is victor. Norman Finkelstein, the vociferous Goldhagen critic who lost most of his family in the death camps and ghettoes of Nazi-occupied Europe, has expressed similar views. His forthcoming publication asserts that the “Holocaust industry” was born with the Six-Day War in June of 1967. Before that, there was little mention of the Holocaust in American life. He argues that the development of the “Holocaust industry” in the United States is part of a strategic campaign to justify American political interests in Israel. 53

This is not to deny or diminish the clear and present danger in the ominous resurgence of anti-Semitic sentiments reflected in isolated incidences of racial violence against Jews and Jewish institutions both here and abroad. However, the material realities confronting the Native American population remain, in many instances, comparable to those prevailing in Third World countries. The Native American experience of persecution is not a vicarious one. For substantial portions of this population, it is a lived reality.

What is more, an unrelenting sentiment of Indian-hating persists in this country:

There is a peculiar kind of hatred in the northwoods, a hatred born of the guilt of privilege, a hatred born of living with three generations of complicity in the theft of lives and lands. What is worse is that each day, those who hold this position of privilege must come face to face with those whom they have dispossessed. To others who rightfully should share in the complicity and the guilt, Indians are far away and long ago. But in reservation border towns, Indians [End Page 366] are ever present. . . . The poverty of dispossession is almost overwhelming. So is the poverty of complicity and guilt. In America, poverty is relative, but it still causes shame. That shame, combined with guilt and a feeling of powerlessness, creates an atmosphere in which hatred buds, blossoms, and flourishes. The hatred passes from father to son and from mother to daughter. Each generation feels the hatred and it penetrates deeper to justify a myth. 54

Attempts on the part of American Indians to transcend chronic, intergenerational maladies introduced by the settler population (for example, in the highly contested Casino industry, in the ongoing battles over tribal sovereignty, and so on) are challenged tooth and nail by the U.S. government and its “ordinary” people. Flexibility in transcending these conditions has been greatly curtailed by federal policies that have “legally” supplanted our traditional forms of governance, outlawed our languages and spirituality, manipulated our numbers and identity, usurped our cultural integrity, viciously repressed the leaders of our efforts to regain self-determination, and systematically miseducated the bulk of our youth to believe that this is, if not just, at least inevitable.” 55 Today’s state of affairs in America, both with regard to public memory and national identity, represents a flawless mirror image of the situation in Germany vis-à-vis Jews and other non-Aryan victims of the Nazi regime. 56

Collective indifference to these conditions on the part of both white and black America is a poor reflection on the nation’s character. This collective refusal to acknowledge the genocide further exacerbates the aftermath in Native communities and hinders the recovery process. This, too, sets the American situation apart from the German-Jewish situation: Holocaust denial is seen by most of the world as an affront to the victims of the Nazi regime. In America, the situation is the reverse: victims seeking recovery are seen as assaulting American ideals.

But what is at stake today, at the dawn of a new millennium, is not the culture, tradition, and survival of one population on one continent on either side of the Atlantic. What is at stake is the very future of the human species. LaDuke, in her most recent work, contextualizes the issues from a contemporary perspective:

Our experience of survival and resistance is shared with many others. But it is not only about Native people. . . . In the final analysis, the survival of Native America is fundamentally about the collective survival of all human beings. The question of who gets to determine the destiny of the land, and of the people who live on it–those with the money or those who pray on the land–is a question that is alive throughout society. 57 [End Page 367]

“There is,” as LaDuke reminds us, “a direct relationship between the loss of cultural diversity and the loss of biodiversity. Wherever Indigenous peoples still remain, there is also a corresponding enclave of biodiversity.” 58 But, she continues,

The last 150 years have seen a great holocaust. There have been more species lost in the past 150 years than since the Ice Age. (During the same time, Indigenous peoples have been disappearing from the face of the earth. Over 2,000 nations of Indigenous peoples have gone extinct in the western hemisphere and one nation disappears from the Amazon rainforest every year.) 59

It is not about “us” as indigenous peoples–it is about “us” as a human species. We are all related. At issue is no longer the “Jewish question” or the “Indian problem.” We must speak today in terms of the “human problem.” And it is this “problem” for which not a “final,” but a sustainable, viable solution must be found–because it is no longer a matter of “serial genocide,” it has become one of collective suicide. As Terrence Des Pres put it, in The Survivor: “At the heart of our problems is that nihilism which was all along the destiny of Western culture: a nihilism either unacknowledged even as the bombs fell or else, as with Hitler or Stalin, demonically proclaimed as the new salvation.” 60

All of us must now begin thinking and acting in the dimension and in the interest of the human species–an intellectual domain of vita activa that indigenous people have inhabited since time immemorial. It is this modality of thought as a process of reflection that the “civilized” nations must learn from the “savage” ones. Vine Deloria, in “Native American Spirituality,” has attempted to clarify this distinction:

American Indians look backwards in time to the creation of the world and view reality from the perspective of the one species that has the capability to reflect on the meaning of things. This attitude is generally misunderstood by non-Indians who act as if reflection and logical thought were synonymous. But reflection is a special art and requires maturity of personality, certainty of identity, and feelings of equality with the other life forms of the world. It consists, more precisely, of allowing wisdom to approach rather than seeking answers to self-generated questions. Such an attitude, then, stands in a polarized position to the manner in which society today conducts itself. 61

It is not a matter of moral bookkeeping or of winners and losers in the battle of the most martyred minority. It is not a matter of comparative victimology, but one of collective survival. The insistence on incomparability and “uniqueness” of the Nazi Holocaust is precisely what prohibits our collective comprehension of genocide as a phenomenon of Western “civilization,” not as a reiterative series of historical events, each in its own way “unique.” It is what [End Page 368] inhibits our ability to name causes, anticipate outcomes, and, above all to engage in preemptive political and intellectual action in the face of contemporary exigencies.

In Tabori’s 1990 production Weisman and Rotgesicht, the “calculus of calamity” is taken to hilarious heights to reveal the grave truth of the matter. In his 1994 discussion of “The Contemporary German Fascination for Things Jewish,” Jack Zipes states of Weisman und Rotgesicht:

The resolution that Tabori offers, though hilarious, is meant to be taken seriously: a verbal duel so that both sides can expose themselves and realize how ridiculous it is to quarrel with one another. Hilarity becomes a nomadic means of questioning majority culture and of reversing identities so that understanding between different groups can be generated. 62

Ultimately, fostering a “solidarity of memory” that might fundamentally challenge majority culture must be the aim of any comparison of “minority” situations, but the conclusion Zipes draws from this particular conflation of identities in conflict is flawed by a misapprehension of the play’s historically and culturally specific geographic setting in the Western wilderness and its relationship to indigenous peoples. As I have argued elsewhere, while Tabori does not specify the site of the duel in the desert, the play could be interpreted to be set in what is now the state of Colorado. 63 This is the site of the Sand Creek Massacre–a historical event with culturally specific meaning to the Native American people. It is at once a site of sanctity, of sacrifice, and of sacrilege. It represents the rampant desecration that has devastated an entire civilization and its way of life. But according to Jack Zipes’s analysis: “There are many parallels that one can draw with the conflict in this play: Jews and blacks in the States, or blacks and Koreans; Jews and Turks in Germany; Jews and Arabs in the Middle East.” 64 Clearly, other subaltern Others share similar relationships to other, more distant desert lands and wilderness landscapes, but Zipes’s analogies are flawed on several counts.

In the case of the conflicts between the first two groups cited, the element of violent conquest and the dispossession of lands at the heart of the American Indian-European immigrant “dispute” is absent: Jews and blacks, like Jews and Koreans, are engaged in a struggle for cultural, racial, economic, and social equity in territories to which they have been introduced as Others–either as slaves, immigrants, or refugees. In the German-Turkish situation, the “minority” group is the “alien element” or, as the German euphemism would have it, “guest workers.” None of these struggles involves legal agreements between sovereign nations–that is to say treaties between sovereign political entities–the terms of which have not been upheld by an outlaw state whose legitimacy as a “world power” is nevertheless recognized by the international community [End Page 369] .

As Seth Wolitz has stated in this regard, “the text can also be read allegorically as a version of the Israeli-Palestinian encounter between two subalterns squabbling over land which the ‘Gewittergoi’, the imperialist powers, can always regain and control.” 65 The problem with this allegory, though, is that the North American territories that function as the setting and backdrop for the territories at issue in the Indian-immigrant conflict have yet to be manumitted from colonialist bondage. The lands remain in control of the “imperialist power.”

Precisely this is central to understanding the double-edged ironies and conflicts addressed in Weisman und Rotgesicht. The setting involves a geographical site that is readily associated with the actual site of a massacre and, as such, the site itself is ambiguous: it signifies both a site of (ongoing) sanctity and one of (ongoing) desecration. If the parallel is to be drawn between the Jewish and American Indian subaltern situations, the course of history as well as the present state of affairs must be taken into account: the fact is that Hitler lost the war and the State of Israel was formed as partial reparation for the losses sustained by the Jewish population as a result. However, the United States government, even as it sought to help absorb the losses sustained by the Jewish population in Europe not only through its support of Israel, but by offering refuge to Jewish immigrants in territories seized from the indigenous populations, won its war against the Indians. 66 The crucial difference between a regime whose demise was rooted in genocide and one for whom genocide was its foundational principle and the prerequisite to its existence is elided by this analogy.

Moreover, at the level of sheer abstraction, the solidarity between subaltern groups that the Jewish-American tradition of “spoofing” Jewish-Indian relations seeks to evoke is marred by its unilateral initiative–emanating from the Jewish perspective in the context of a Judeo-Christian framework that demonstrates little regard for or knowledge of the cultural and religious world-views of Native Americans, either as a collective entity or as heterogeneous individual nations–each with its own relationship to specific geographic sites within the boundaries of occupied territories now defined as the United States.

The land, “the Wilderness” or “the Desert” which has come to signify a “wasteland” in the symbolic and spiritual orders of other peoples, has never been associated with anything but abundance and eternal sustenance for indigenous peoples because revelation is rooted in the life of reflection on and with the land, not in catastrophic upheaval or divine intervention. Vine Deloria explains the “problem” of misconstrued understandings of this relationship in this way:

Almost every tribal religion was based on land. . . . Some of the old chiefs felt that, because generations of their ancestors had been buried on the lands and because the sacred events of their religion had taken place on the lands, they [End Page 370] were obligated to maintain the tribal lands against new kinds of exploitation. . . . Especially among the Pueblos, Hopi, and Navajo, the lands of the creation and emergence traditions are easily identified and are regarded as places of utmost significance. . . . Government officials have ruthlessly disregarded the Indians’ pleas for the restoration of their most sacred lands, and the constant dispute between Indians and whites centers around this subject. 67

If anything sets the American Indian apart from other victims of genocide or oppression in this country, it is this:

Native Americans are not, in the strictest sense of the word, a “diasporic” people. 68 While the policies of Indian Removal certainly served to disperse, displace, disparage, and dislocate Native cultures and identities from coast to coast, imposing upon Native North American peoples conditions of existence that might be described as “diasporic” in a Judeo-Christian or postcolonialist context, I would caution against the appropriation of the diasporic metaphor with regard to the state of Native North America. The traditional Deuteronomic narrative of the Diaspora implies divine punishment in response to a breach of covenant. In order for a “diasporic” situation to prevail, the peoples of the diaspora must have entered into a contract with the divinely intervening deity. But indigenous peoples of this country stood in no such relationship to the Judeo-Christian God and his sovereign representatives on Earth. The notion of a “Native Diaspora” in the United States presupposes an adherence to the doctrine of Manifest Destiny as divine intervention on the part of the Judeo-Christian God in His effort to create “living space” or Lebensraum for His children–“chosen” and “unchosen” alike. Even if we were to accept the contemporary permutations of the concept in the postcolonialist attempt to subvert and decenter traditional narratives of nationalism and imperialism as these relate to identity formation and the location of culture, the diasporic metaphor is inapplicable because the peoples and lands at issue here have yet to be manumitted from neo-colonialist bondage.

Uprootedness, homelessness, exile–these are maladies forced upon Native North American populations by the invading Europeans. What Simone Weil has written about this affliction in reference to Euro-African relations in Africa applies equally to the situation on Turtle Island.

[T]he white man carries [uprootedness] about with him wherever he goes. The disease has even penetrated the heart of the African continent, which had for thousands of years, nevertheless, been made up of villages. These black people at any rate, when nobody came to massacre them, torture them, or reduce them to slavery, knew how to live happily on their land. Contact with us is making them lose the art. That ought to make us wonder whether even the [End Page 371] black man, although the most primitive of all colonized peoples, hadn’t after all more to teach us than to learn from us. 69

Native Americans have been “extirpated” as “savages” and as “barbarians” on their own soil. That soil has been contaminated by pestilence, poisons, toxins, oil spills, nuclear waste dumps and all the other deadly by-products Western “civilization” inevitably leaves as its legacy. Sacred sites have been effaced; graves have been robbed. Synagogues and churches can be rebuilt, but Mount Rushmore is not likely to be restored to its original glory by geological cosmetic surgery. Taken literally, James Young’s figurative language in “America’s Holocaust: Memory and the Politics of Identity,” is laced with mordant irony:

By themselves monuments are of little value, mere stones in the landscape. But as part of a nation’s rites or the objects of a people’s national pilgrimage, they are imbued with national soul and memory. For traditionally the state-sponsored memory of a national past aims to affirm the righteousness of a nation’s birth, even its divine election. The matrix of a nation’s monuments emplots the story of ennobling events, of triumphs over barbarism, and recalls the martyrdom of those who gave their lives in the struggle for national existence–who in the martyrological refrain, died so that a nation might live. In assuming the idealized forms and meanings assigned this era by the state, memorials tend to concretize particular historical interpretations. They suggest themselves in indigenous, even geological outcroppings in a national landscape; in time, such idealized memory grows as natural to the eye as the landscape in which it stands.” 70 [emphasis mine]

The irony of his statements is certainly not lost on Young, who concludes his discussion with a section titled “Against a Culture of Competing Catastrophes,” and states: “In the end we must recognize that memory cannot be divorced from the actions taken in its behalf, and that memory without consequences may even contain the seeds of its own destruction.” 71 The “national monument” at Mount Rushmore represents the geographic and symbolic site in which the principles of Manifest Destiny and the master race are literally set in stone. 72

Only when the sanctity in the hearts and minds of the indigenous population of this “vast, untamed wilderness” itself has been duly acknowledged–when the dominant culture finally comes to grips with the fact that the ground they walk upon is not like a temple to the American Indian–it is the temple–then, and only then, will the nature of the devastation and desecration be driven home to them.

Once that has been established, the essentially suicidal nature of Western intellectual endeavor will also become apparent. The savage–an entity reduced in the Western scheme of things to the level of “bare (and hence [End Page 372] disposable) life” on a par with the plant–reveals himself, in the Native American world-view, to be precisely that: nothing more and nothing less than the tree itself–equals in a covenant and an evolutionary chain that does not shackle or bind, but merely bonds. To the Native American sense and sensibility, the tree represents life itself, and there is no split between the life of the tree and the life of the human. They are holistically, historically, and happily related in the nexus of mutually sustainable symbiosis.

If, following Agamben, “homo sacer is life that may be killed but not sacrificed . . . life that may be killed by anyone without committing homicide,” then no crime has been committed in the American Holocaust, nor is the dearth of “academic moves,” “scholarly turns,” and “paradigmatic shifts” toward a fundamental rethinking and reshaping of American national identity of any consequence in global, local, or national terms. 73 There has been no “human” sacrifice in the conquest of the West. Nothing but the forest has been lost to the victor culture. But, if Native theorists, religious leaders, and activists who have survived the holocausts are correct in asserting, as they do, that the fate of the forest will be that of man, then the master race is, in fact, engaged in the specter of committing collective suicide–exercising the authority of the sovereign over life and death on all our behalf.

If we are to divert the disaster, Mount Rushmore must be placed on a par with burning synagogues, whose fires can never be extinguished, and with black churches in the South subjected to racially motivated acts of arson. If the “Jews are the Indians of Germany,” then Mount Rushmore is Bitburg, writ large and indelible, engraved not only in our collective memory, but spat on the very floor of the temple–a civic memorial to a people and a way of life sacrificed to someone else’s “God.” 74 But it is also here that the master race, ex altera terra, has signed and sealed its own fate on this continent as that of homo sacer:

A life that, excepting itself in double exclusion from the real context of both the profane and the religious forms of life, is defined solely by virtue of having entered into an intimate symbiosis with death without, nevertheless, belonging to the world of the deceased. 75

The stones speak volumes that continue to fall on the deaf ears of an American public more German than the Germans in its persistent refusal to come to terms with a “little matter of genocide,” choosing instead to adopt as its own the foundling stone of a historical marker–that coveted historical caesura everyone wants to have, but no one wants to own in the “Americanization of the Holocaust.” 76 But in the canyons of deep memory, the song of the stones still echoes and rings true for the three million survivors of the American Holocaust.

Lilian Friedberg is a bilingual published author and political activist with a master’s degree in the humanities from the University of Chicago and is currently a doctoral candidate in Germanic Studies at the University of Illinois at Chicago.
Notes

1. The reader of this paper is instructed to note that the linguistic and literary intent of the writer includes a deliberate transgression of traditional boundaries in scholarship. This paper thus combines and at the same time challenges elements of various genres: from personal narrative, to scholarly discourse, to critical analysis and creative writing in a parodic idiom that, at times, borders on the “sacrilegious.” It is written from the subject position of a German-Jewish-Native-American-(Anishinabe)-Female and, as a “cross-genred” literary experiment, seeks to reflect the cultural hybridity of its author.

2. Seth Wolitz, “From Parody to Redemption: George Tabori’s Weisman und Rotgesicht,” in Verkörperte Geschichtsentwürfe: George Taboris Theaterarbeit, ed. Peter Höyng (Tübingen: Francke Verlag, 1998) 151-76, 163.

3. Mark Slobin, “From Vilna to Vaudeville: Minikes and Among the Indians,” The Drama Review 24, no. 3 (September 1980): 18.

4. Raphael Seligmann, Mit beschränkter Hoffnung: Juden, Deutsche und Israelis (Hamburg: Hoffman und Campe, 1991), 97-8; cited in Sander L. Gilman, Jews in Today’s German Culture (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995), 19.

5. Lucy Dawidowicz, The Holocaust and the Historians (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981), 17. In Dawidowicz’s earlier work The War against the Jews 1933-1945 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1975), her discussion of the Madagascar Plan speaks in terms of the “Madagascar reservation . . . a reservation for Jews that would become truly their final destination” (150-66) [emphasis mine].

6. Cited in Peter Novik, The Holocaust in American Life (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1999), 200.

7. Novik, The Holocaust in American Life, 198.

8. See also Henry R. Huttenbach, “The Psychology and Politics of Genocide Denial: A Comparison of Four Case Studies,” in Studies in Comparative Genocide, eds. Levon Chorbajian and George Shirinian (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1999), 216: “Denial has become an integral part of genocide; not to take this aspect into consideration is to fail to comprehend a major component of the dynamics of extermination.”

9. At the time of this writing, Finkelstein’s most recent work The Holocaust Industry: Reflections on the Exploitation of Jewish Suffering was scheduled for publication by Verso in July 2000. Citations here are from an 11 June 2000 review by Bryan Appleyard published in the online version of The Sunday Times (http://www.Sunday-times.co.uk/news/pages/sti/2000/06/11/stirevnws02006.html).

10. Novik, The Holocaust in American Life, 13.

11. Saul Friedländer, Memory, History, and the Extermination of the Jews of Europe (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993), 23.

12. Ernst Reinhard Piper, ed., Historikerstreit: Die Dokumentation der Konstervers um die Einzigartigkeit der national-sozialistischen Judenvernichtung (Munich: Piper Verlag, 1987); in English, James Knowlton and Truett Cates, trans., Forever in the Shadow of Hitler? Original Documents of the Historikerstreit, the Controversy Concerning the Singularity of the Holocaust (Atlantic Highlands nj: Humanities Press, 1993).

13. Gerald Vizenor, Manifest Manners: Narrative on Postindian Survivance (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1994), 4.

14. George Tabori, “Hamlet in Blue,” Theatre Quarterly 20 (1975): 117-32.

15. Henryk Broder, “Die Germanisierung des Holocaust,” in Volk und Wahn (Munich: Goldman Verlag, 1996), 214. English-language translations of “The Germanization of the Holocaust” and other essays by the same author are forthcoming in Lilian M. Friedberg and Sander L. Gilman, eds., To Each His Own: Selected Essays by German-Jewish Essayist Henryk Broder. Indeed, as Broder’s essay implies, a veritable cottage industry has developed around the Holocaust. Titles like Edward Alexander’s “Stealing the Holocaust,” (Midstream [November 1980]) reflect the lunatic proportions that characterize the debates. See also Norman Finkelstein at note 9 above.

16. James Axtell, Beyond 1492: Encounters in Colonial North America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), 262-63.

17. Finkelstein’s article was subsequently reprinted–together with an equally scathing critique of Goldhagen’s thesis and methodology by Ruth Bettina Birn, a recognized authority on the archives Goldhagen cites as sources for his research–in A Nation on Trial: The Goldhagen Thesis and Historical Truth (New York: Henry Holt, 1998).

18. William Greider, One World, Ready or Not: The Manic Logic of Global Capitalism (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), 368.

19. Dominick LaCapra, Representing the Holocaust: History, Theory, Trauma (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1996), 57.

20. Steven Katz, “The Uniqueness of the Holocaust: The Historical Dimension,” in Is the Holocaust Unique?: Perspectives on Comparative Genocide, ed. Alan Rosenbaum (Boulder CO: Westview Press, 1996), 21.

21. See Katz’s chapter on “The Depopulation of the New World in the Sixteenth Century” in The Holocaust in Historical Context: Volume I: The Holocaust and Mass Death before the Modern Age (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), 87-91.

22. Katz, The Holocaust in Historical Context, 59.

23. Raphael Lemkin, Axis Rule in Occupied Europe (Washington DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1944), cited in Katz, Holocaust in Historical Context, 125. Lemkin’s definition has been reprinted in most standard works on genocide. For the reader who may be unfamiliar with the text of Article 2 of the UN Convention on Genocide adopted by the General Assembly in November 1948, which was based on Lemkin’s original delineation of the term and the crime’s parameters, I reprint it here: “In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such:

1. Killing members of the group.

2. Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group.

3. Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part.

4. Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group.

5. Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group. (cited in Katz, Holocaust in Historical Context, 125)

Ward Churchill’s A Little Matter of Genocide: Holocaust and Denial in the Americas 1492-Present (San Francisco: City Lights Books, 1997) firmly establishes, point by point, the manner and degree to which policies and actions on the part of the U.S. government and its people conform to the definition of genocide as outlined by Lemkin and by the UN convention.

24. Lord Jeffrey Amherst, cited in Churchill, Matter of Genocide, 154.

25. David E. Stannard, American Holocaust (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), xii.

26. While sources may disagree on the exact wording of Sheridan’s now infamous statement, the sentiment, regardless of wording, is always the same. My source here is The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1955), 499. The examples cited here reflect but the tip of the iceberg in a documented litany of official and unofficial statements issued by governmental authorities and representatives of the people of the United States, which express clear and unequivocal intent to exterminate the entire indigenous population of North America.

27. Yehuda Bauer, “Comparison of Genocides” in Chorbajian and Shirinian, Studies in Comparative Genocide, 38.

28. Lenore A. Stiffarm with Phil Lane, “The Demography of Native North America,” in The State of Native America: Genocide, Colonization, and Resistance, ed. Annette Jaimes (Boston: South End Press, 1992), 33.

29. Churchill, Matter of Genocide, 63.

30. Ibid., 64.

31. Ibid., 147. See also Reginal Horsman, Race and Manifest Destiny: The Origins of American Racial Anglo-Saxonism (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981); Frank Parella, “Lebensraum and Manifest Destiny: A Comparative Study in the Justification of Expansion” (master’s thesis, Georgetown University, 1950); Albert K. Weinberg, Manifest Destiny: A Study of Nationalist Expansion in American History (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1935); Frederick Merk, Manifest Destiny and Mission in American History: A Reinterpretation (New York: Knopf, 1963).

32. John Toland, paraphrased in Stannard, American Holocaust, 153.

33. Katz, Holocaust in Historical Context, 97.

34. Cited in Richard Drinnon, Facing West: The Metaphysics of Indian-Hating and Empire Building (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1980), 232.

35. Hannah Arendt, The Origins of Totalitarianism (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1973), ix. Arendt also identifies the doctrine of the master race as an element of the same “subterranean stream,” but her American exceptionalism renders her comments in this regard of little use to an analysis of the notion of “one nation under God” as a euphemistic veil for the concept of a master race. See Arendt, Origins, 152, 206.

36. Drinnon, Facing West, 463.

37. Ibid., 463.

38. Ibid., 465.

39. Ibid., 462.

40. Ibid., 463.

41. A discussion of the role Christian ideals played in the genocide of both the Jews and the indigenous populations of the Americas oversteps the scope of this study. Elie Wiesel, unaware perhaps of his own profundity in this matter, sums up the gist of the argument quite well when he states: “All the killers were Christian. . . . The Nazi system was the consequence of a movement of ideas and followed a strict logic; it did not arise in a void but had its roots deep in a tradition that prophesied it, prepared for it, and brought it to maturity. That tradition was inseparable from the past of Christian, civilized Europe” (in Irving Abrahamson, ed., Against Silence: The Voice and Vision of Elie Wiesel [New York: Holocaust Library, 1985], 33).

42. Stannard, American Holocaust, 13.

43. Giorgio Agamben, Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life, trans. Daniel Heller-Roazen (Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 1998), 114.

44. Churchill, Matter of Genocide, 229.

45. Stannard, American Holocaust, x.

46. See also Terrence Des Pres’s (The Survivor: An Anatomy of Life in the Death Camps [Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1976], 207) assertion that “[the survivor] is the first of civilized men to live beyond the compulsions of culture” [emphasis mine].

47. Ward Churchill, “A Summary of Arguments Against the Naming of a University Residence Hall After Clinton M. Tyler” (report prepared at the request of the assistant vice chancellor for academic services, University of Colorado at Boulder, July 1981, cited in Annette Jaimes, ed., The State of Native America, 5).

48. Novik, Holocaust in American Life, 9.

49. See note 9 above.

50. Eduardo and Bonnie Duran, Native American Postcolonial Psychology (New York: SUNY Press, 1995), 40.

51. Winona LaDuke, All Our Relations: Native Struggles for Land and Life (Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 1999), 148.

52. Novik, Holocaust in American Life, 9.

53. See note 9 above.

54. Winona LaDuke, Last Standing Woman (Stillwater, MN: Voyageur Press, 1997), 127. LaDuke’s reference here is to the state of Minnesota. Her discussion centers on the particularly virulent strain of metaphysical Indian-hating that permeates those areas in direct proximity to reservations.

55. Annette Jaimes, “Sand Creek–The Morning After,” in Jaimes, The State of Native America, 8. A detailed discussion of the “legal” means employed by the U.S. government in outlawing and criminalizing various elements of native culture far exceeds the scope of this study. Churchill states, in this regard,

It may seem curious that American Indians, who had mandatorily become U.S. citizens by 1924, should “need a special statute passed in the late 1970’s [The American Indian Religious Freedom Act, 1978] to be able to utilize the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment to the Constitution.” A number of statutes and regulations promulgated during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, however, effectively criminalized a range of indigenous spiritual practices extending from the Lakota sun dance to the potlatch ceremonies of the nations of the Pacific Northwest. Further, given that many native traditions embody a concept of sacred geography, loss of lands had by the late twentieth century seriously curtailed site-specific practices of Indian spirituality (Ward Churchill, cited in Jaimes, The State of Native North America, 17).

Native and non-Native scholars have conducted a substantial amount of research on these issues.

56. The “New Age” spiritual movement’s fascination and appropriation of things Indian also presents a mirror image of the “contemporary fascination for things Jewish in Germany.” See article of the same title by Jack Zipes, in Sander Gilman and Karen Remmler, eds., Reemerging Jewish Culture in Germany: Life and Literature since 1989 (New York: New York University Press, 1994), 15-45; cf. Wendy Rose, “The Great Pretenders: Further Reflections on Whiteshamanism,” in Jaimes, The State of Native North America, 403-21.

57. LaDuke, All Our Relations, 5.

58. Ibid., 1.

59. Ibid., 1.

60. Des Pres, The Survivor, 207.

61. Vine Deloria, For this Land: Writings on Religion in America (New York: Routledge, 1999), 130.

62. Jack Zipes, “Contemporary Fascination,” 36.

63. Lilian Friedberg, “Mule Minus Forty Million Acres: Topographies of Geographic Disorientation and Redface Minstrelsy in George Tabori’s Weisman und Rotgesicht” (master’s thesis, University of Chicago, May 2000).

64. Zipes, “Contemporary Fascination,” 36.

65. Wolitz, “From Parody to Redemption,” 166.

66. Ward Churchill, speaking at the University of Chicago on 21 January 2000 made this point in his lecture on “A Little Matter of Genocide: Holocaust and Denial in the Americas 1492-Present.”

67. Deloria, For this Land, 127.

68. Any significant discussion of indigenous peoples and their relationship to the lands currently inhabited by other diasporic peoples is glaringly absent, for example, in Michael Galchnisky’s discussion of diasporism with regard to multicultural identity in the United States. See “Scattered Seeds: A Dialogue of Diasporas,” in Insider/Outsider: American Jews and Multiculturalism, eds. David Biale, Michael Galchinsky, and Susan Heschel (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998), 185-212.

69. Weil, The Need for Roots, 77.

70. James E. Young, “America’s Holocaust: Memory and the Politics of Identity,” in The Americanization of the Holocaust, ed. Helene Flanzbaum (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999), 69.

71. Ibid., 82.

72. While opinions in Native communities are divided with regard to the “Rushmore alternative”–the “Crazy Horse Monument”–it is the view of many that this monumental undertaking, initiated by European immigrants, constitutes an equally atrocious assault on the land, which only adds insult to injury, especially since Crazy Horse, throughout his life, had insisted that no graphic representations of his person be made.

73. Agamben, Homo Sacer, 101-3.

74. This is a reference to the international scandal surrounding then President Ronald Reagan’s conduct at the cemetery in Bitburg, Germany, where former SS soldiers are buried and were commemorated in 1986. For a more detailed discussion of the event and its meaning, see also David Singer, ed, Bitburg in Moral and Political Perspective (Bloomington: University Press of Indiana, 1986) and Ilya Levkov, ed., Bitburg and Beyond: Encounters in American, German, and Jewish History (New York: Shapolsky, 1987).

75. Agamben, Homo Sacer, 100.

76. Russel Means, 12 October 1992, American Indian Movement:

“All my life, I’ve had to listen to rhetoric about the United States being a model of freedom and democracy, the most uniquely enlightened and humanitarian country in history, a ‘nation of laws’ which, unlike others, has never pursued policies of conquest and aggression. I’m sure you’ve heard it before. It’s official ‘truth’ in the United States. It’s what is taught to schoolchildren and it’s the line peddled to the general public. Well, I’ve got a hot news flash for everybody here. It’s a lie. The whole thing’s a lie, and it always has been. Leaving aside the obvious points which could be raised to disprove it by blacks and Chicanos and Asian immigrants right here in North America–not to mention the Mexicans, the Nicaraguans, the Guatemalans, the Puerto Ricans, the Hawaiians, the Filipinos, the Samoans, the Tamarros of Guam, the Marshall Islanders, the Koreans, the Vietnamese, the Cubans, the Dominicans, the Granadans, the Libyans, the Panamanians, the Iraqis, and a few dozen other peoples out there who’ve suffered American invasions and occupations first hand–there’s a little matter of genocide that’s got to be taken into account right here at home. I’m talking about the genocide which has been perpetrated against American Indians, a genocide that began the instant the first of Europe’s boat people washed up on the beach of Turtle Island, a genocide that’s continuing right now, at this moment. Against Indians, there’s not a law the United States hasn’t broken, not a Crime Against Humanity it hasn’t committed, and it’s still going on” (cited in Churchill, Matter of Genocide, frontispiece).

Why The Washington “Redskins” Should Be Called The Washington “Niggers”!

Image result for wounded knee massacre

Image result for image redskin bounty

Think THIS… A football team owned by a “KIKE” who’s majority players are “NIGGERS” and then read the history and the real life definition of what was a  “REDSKIN” and apply THE NON INDIAN RACE HATE LOGIC OF AMERICAN INDIANS!

As for the “Washington JEW Post” who’s surveyed “Native Americans”…most if not all were NOT living on a RESERVATION nor were they even close to “Full Bloods” but rather “Wannabe NO BLOODS” who have a “Cherokee Princes” in their family tree….kind of like that FAKE INDIAN Warren!

Go to Pine Ridge any “KIKE” or “NIGGER” and call them “REDSKIN” and see how long you stay standing on your feet!

I blogged this and then removed it and now I am restoring it for your historical pleasure. Richard Boyden Genocidal History of The Word “REDSKIN” (Worse then the word “NIGGER̶…

Richard Boyden

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Genocidal History of The Word “REDSKIN” (Worse then the word “NIGGER”!)

Back not so long ago, when there was a bounty on the heads of the Indian Peopleo… the trappers would bring in Indian scalps along with the other skins that they had managed to trap or shoot, Trappers and hunters began using the term ‘redskin’ …they would tell the owner that they had bearskin, deerskins…and ‘redskins.’ The term came from the bloody mess that one saw when looking at the scalp …thus the term ‘red’…skin… So, you see when we see or hear that term…we don’t see a football team… we don’t see a game being played…we don’t see any ‘honor’…we see the bloody pieces of scalps that were hacked off of our men, women and even our children… we hear the screams as our people were killed…and ‘skinned’ just like animals. So, yes, …you can safely say that the term is considered extremely offensive.” Tina Holder, Blackfeet, Choctaw

February 14, 2013 By Richard Boyden

Preface: On Feb.9, 2013, Scott Prentice, Owner of “Territory Media” and “Black Hills Portal” in Lead South Dakota, hacked into my “richardboyden.wordpress.com” account and deleted this article among all others. And why? Because for Scott Prentice, American Indians are “Savages” and “Redskins” who he considers being less then human.

It is both prophetic and ironic that a professional football team named after a famous American Indian Chief called Seattle….defeated a team who’s name historically targeted his race with a visceral scathing murderous hate inspired from the throne of hell itself.

As L. Frank Baum…”Mr. Wizard of Oz”  (lauded by Jews!) once wrote, “Having wronged them for centuries we had better, in order to protect our civilization, follow it up by one more wrong and wipe these untamed and untamable creatures from off the face of the earth. In this lies future safety for our settlers and the soldiers who are under incompetent commands. Otherwise, we may expect future years to be as full of trouble with the redskins as those have been in the past”.

This is information is for those folks who are in mourning because their beloved Washington football team lost AGAIN and to take note that there were American Indian spiritual Leaders who prayed a curse on this professional football team. Why you ask?

Because American Indians consider the name “redskin” a racially slanderous and offensive word equal to other racially offensive names identifying other races and cultures in a equally hateful, racist, and denigrating way. Some prime examples are of course “kike”, “wetback”, “chink”, “gook”, “cracker/honkey” and the infamous “nigger” word. Click HERE to read what a Black writer says about the “redskin” word being as offensive as the “nigger” word.

Of course history shows that racially speaking, the majority of non-Indians in their state of “pathological behavior” gleefully and proudly ignore this hypocrisy as evidenced by rulings in the anti-Indian mascot court cases including the United States Supreme Court as well in editorials in the media. Even Verizon Wireless upholds this racist name and sponsors this team using it which should be reason enough to boycott their company. Yet at the same time, this company employs hate “honkies/crackers” Blacks.

What is conveniently ignored in this quagmire of “racist double speak” is that this Washington D.C. based football team is owned by a Jew named Don Snyder. He has demonstrated that in his peculiar Jewish view, the word “redskin” is not offensive to him in the least. Of course he would call the Anti-Defamation League immediately if his people were being slandered. Add to that the fact that the majority of his players are of African American origin and that not one of them has expressed any concern with the racially offensive name of their team, what you have laid out before us is a collusion of racial hypocrisy on the part of two groups of people who’s history of being victims of racial/religious genocide is the same as that of American/Native American/Indigenous peoples. But God forbid though, if any symbol, statement, or a movie even hints of anything racially offensive targeting their race or religion!

Here is some history connecting the dots between Blacks, Jews, and American Indians that is little known and which underscores the racial hypocrisy of this issue.

Historically with Blacks, the answer might be found in the history of the Black Buffalo Soldiers who fought on behalf of the United States Government as paid “mercenaries” to track down and kill American (“Redskins”) Indians for Jewish owners of rail road companies and or to obtain their freedom as “slaves”. During this period of time, they were awarded 17 Medals of Honor by the United States Government for helping in the breaking of treaties, the stealing of land, and the killing of American Indian men, women, and children who they called “redskins”. Black Buffalo soldiers were also famous for raping Indian women.

Another little known historical factoid concerns a collective of Black troops who made up exclusively the 9th and 10th Coloured (Black) Calvary who were present during the massacre is that they brought to the Wounded Knee “killing fields” the Hotchkiss guns/cannons used to shred to pieces the bodies of unarmed Lakota Sioux men, women, and children. These troops were attached to George Custer’s 7th Calvary.

Eyewitness accounts recount the execution of the women and children of Sitting Bulls people at Wounded Knee. “Four babies had their heads crushed in and when people surrendered, they were summarily executed. This was wholesale butchery”. Twenty members of Custer’s 7th Calvary were awarded Congressional Medals of Honor for their act of butchery. After the slaughter was ended, the Black Buffalo Soldiers celebrated this mass murder by writing a song that glorified the killing of the “redskins”! Again…take note that L. Frank Baum, author/writer of the Wizard of Oz, called for the wholesale “annihilation” of American Indians.

AND….

From his Sitting Bull editorial:

The proud spirit of the original owners of these vast prairies inherited through centuries of fierce and bloody wars for their possession, lingered last in the bosom of Sitting Bull. With his fall the nobility of the Redskin is extinguished, and what few are left are a pack of whining curs who lick the hand that smites them. The Whites, by law of conquest, by justice of civilization, are masters of the American continent, and the best safety of the frontier settlements will be secured by the total annihilation of the few remaining Indians. Why not annihilation? Their glory has fled, their spirit broken, their manhood effaced; better that they die than live the miserable wretches that they are.

So what you have is a dark evil spirit calling for the extermination of American Indians…REDSKINS…and

AND…Jews love his “Wizard of Oz”! Now what if Baum called for the EXTERMINATION OF JEWS!

As for how the United States Military profiled American Indians, this statement made by a member of wrote, ” every redskin must be killed from off the fact of the plains before we can be free from their molestations. They are of no earthly good and the sooner they are swept from the land the better for civilization. I do not think they can be turned aside and made good law abiding citizens any more then coyotes can be used for shepherd dogs” Quote from Major John Vance Lauderdale, US Army surgeon attending physician at the Wounded Knee Massacre.

Other historical commentaries using the name of this professional and revered football team housed in the city President Obama resides in include,  “Hunting redskins became for the time being a popular sport in New England, especially since prisoners were worth good money, and the personal danger to the hunters was now very slight” From Douglas Leach, Flintlock and Tomahawk: New England in King Philps War (W.W. Norton & Co. 1958.

This example of historical understanding of the use of the word “redskin”  is clear and concise when “defining” the word in it’s real life application. ”Others say it was first used on signs at Dutch Trading Posts that listed the “skins” they bought. Among them beaver skins – and redskins. On the Northeast coast, the U.S. Government put a bounty on American Indians’ heads. People had to prove they killed an American Indian in order to get the bounty. How did they prove it? At first they would bring in a head but that got to cumbersome so it simply became the scalps. The prices paid for scalps were different depending on whether they were taken from a male or a female and whether they were taken from an adult or a child. Adult females brought the most money because they could produce American Indian offspring. How did they prove the sex of the person the scalp once belonged to? For women they would cut off the breasts and present them with scalps. For children’s scalps it was often the feet that were cut off.” From the Cincinnati Zapatista Coalition, American Indian Mascot Page.

Jewish team owner Dan Snyder has a “historical” religious peer who glorified in the “scalping of redskins”. His name was Sigmund Shlesinger, a Jewish immigrant from New York City. He gleefully participated in the genocide of American Indians as a part of the United States policy of “ethnic cleansing” on Cheyenne lands near Sheridan Kansas. He is recorded as writing…“Scalpt 3 Indians which were found 15 feet from my hole in consealt in grass…for the purpose of collecting bounty”. (American Jewish Archives, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati”.) So you see…in order for this Jew to collect the money reward for killing a “redskin”, he had to present a “scalp”.

Snyder’s people have contributed to and been directly involved in the both the destruction of American Indians and the racially profiling of them as less then human whether it be in history, Jewish Hollywood produced movies, or in print. The first distribution of whiskey to Indians in the 1700′s was through whiskey distilleries owned by a Jew named Nicholas Lowe to take advantage of Indians in “commerce”. The first slaves were Indians…not Blacks and they were the cargo on the ship owned by a Jew named Columbus.

Recent racial insensitivity on the part of Snyder’s people includes a Wall Street Journal article written by a Jew named Kaplan who glorified the various military campaigns of “Indian killing” as something to be proud of. Another example of Jewish love for American Indians is found in the words of talk show host Michael Medved who stated that there was nothing close to a “American Holocaust” of Indians compared to that of Jews. He called Indian Nations “Struggling Stone Age Societies”. Other Jews say that there is no comparison between the Jewish Holocaust and the American.

Of course Jews like Snyder would also deny their role in the Holocaust of millions of Christians by his progeny in Russia!

In spite of the fact American Indians are ignored in this issue by those who should know better, Jews and Blacks, and that they continue to be without a government or public representative speaking on their behalf, they do have the consolation of knowing that their Creator knows the truth and origins of hateful and hurtful word and that He will continue to answer their prayers in the damning of this team and those that support it.

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I will end with a little known fact about another “Redskin” hating White man… Andrew Jackson. Jackson was a Free Mason as were most Indian hating Presidents. He was also founder of the modern Democratic Party as well as the greatest Indian killer of all American Presidents. Jackson United States troops “…to root out from their ‘dens’ and kill Indian women and their ‘whelps’” (Stannard, p. 240). Jackson was so effective at rooting women and “whelps” from their “dens,” he adopted the habit of cutting off his victims’ noses as trophies to commemorate his exploits. He earned the name “Sharp Knife” from Creek Indians for his penchant for skinning victims and using the cured and braided tissue as reins for his ponies (Takaki, 1994)

Recently I was searching the news visiting one of my favorite sites, “Israel National News”, an online Internet publication out of IsraeI. I noticed a shocking article stating that Columbus was in fact a Jew and not a Christian Gentile. As I read the information, I immediately readjusted my understanding of “American History” as pertaining to American Indians and Jews and how Jewish Racism starting with Columbus, was one of the primary sources of the political, economic, and physical genocide of American Indians.

Being Jewish on my Grandfather’s side, having lived in Israel, and as a former radio talk show host, I many times focused on issues related to Israel including interviewing Holocaust survivors.These were Jews who were victims of Nazi Racism. Even though my Jewish roots were not “official” due to the fact  I have no immediate “matrilineal” connection to my heritage, I am acutely aware of the Spiritual calling and role of Jewish people in their relationship with God and mankind. Because of this part of my life, I was aware of injustice and racism on a level that allowed me to understand more fully the genocidal history of American Indians and sadly enough, the role of Jewish people in this tragic history.

From my college days, I have at one time or another been directly involved with American Indians through my involvement with and working for various Indian organizations, as well as teaching investigative journalism at Haskell Indian Nations University, living on a reservation in South Dakota, as well as interviewing dozen’s of prominent Indians from various tribes and backgrounds as a radio talk show host in Kansas City. I was also became aware of the obvious and blatant of involvement of Jews in the genocidal history of American Indians in contrast to their spiritual calling to right the injustices they have experienced from 1492 to this day and this “American Holocaust” history is discussed by Lilian Friedberg a Jewish scholar who wrote a article called Dare to Compare: Americanizing the Holocaust.

In further readings, I discovered another shocking fact that contributes to American Indian Genocide to this day and that is the fact that the first whiskey distilleries started in America were established in Newport. by a Jew named Nicholas Lowe and that whiskey was a “Jewish tool” to take advantage of Indians in “commerce”. Also, the first slaves were not African, but Indians taken by Columbus to Europe. Most all of the slave ships used in transporting African peoples to America as slaves, were Jewish owned.

I found a story on a Jewish “bounty hunter” named Sigmund Shlesinger, a Jewish immigrant from New York City, working in Kansas on Cheyenne lands near Sheridan Kansas. He gleefully participated in the mass murder and genocide of American Indians, participated in hunting down American Indian families in their homes and attacking them. His Jewish racism targeting American Indians included making sure they were murdered, terrorized, and deported in a massive ethnic cleansing. “Scalpt 3 Indians which were found 15 feet from my hole consealt in grass…for the purpose of collecting bounty.” (American Jewish Archives, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati)

More recent are news articles published in the Wall Street Journal, written by a Jew named Kaplan, glorifying the various military campaigns of Indian killing, as something to be proud of. Michael Medved, a Jewish talk show host, states that there was nothing close to a “Holocaust” of Indians as compared to Jewish history. He called Indian Nations “Struggling Stone Age Societies”.

Then there is the scamming lying works of a Jew named Abramhoff who’s resume was pure exploitation of Indian Tribal casino monies. Abramhoff used the “F” word to describe American Indians. He considered them a “lower form of existence…they are just plain stupid…Morons.”

And on Indian Reservations here in South Dakota, H. R. Block (Bloch), a Jewish owned tax service, is engaged in racist “predatory lending” and making hundreds of thousands of dollars off of unsuspecting Indians by offering “quick high interest loans” in the name of “getting your refund sooner”. Block was sued for doing the same among poor Blacks but has a “green light” from the government to exploit American Indians.

The highest prices for food and groceries are found in two Jewish owned stores on the Pine Ridge and Rosebud reservations…20-30 % higher as compared to off reservation stores. Single Indian mothers needing pampers and wipes for their babies have to pay $2 to $4 more per package. Formula is overpriced compared to Wal-Mart. These mothers earn in some cases less than $400 dollars a month. Is this not racism and economic exploitation of American Indians by Jewish Racism?

The point I am making, is that as I have studied, observed, and witnessed Jewish contact and involvement with American Indians, it has been from the beginning to this day, solely for the purpose of using and exploiting for the purpose of making money off of American Indians. This includes the theft of the Black Hills, the billions in gold stolen from the Black Hills and the ignoring of this by the Jewish segment in America. Jews also have ignored the “loss” of billions of dollars in “trust monies” owed to American Indians by the same United States government. But of course, they want their lost and stolen assets from the Holocaust paid back. How hypocritical.

I also have experienced only one response from Jewish people in responding to the efforts of the charity I am president of, Operation Morning Star. There have been over 30 newspaper articles, various television spots, and numerous attempts on my part to get assistance from Jewish people. Only one congregation responded in 14 years, no philanthropic organizations, no “rich” Jewish families or individuals. Yet I see the same helping other races and cultures in this country and world wide. Why is that?

Last year I called the local Jewish Community Center in Kansas City and informed them of the fact the play they were showing there, the Wizard of Oz, was written by L. Frank Baum. I informed them that Baum was a hater of American Indians after the order of a “Hitler” and as a “prominent” newspaper editor in South Dakota, he called for the total extermination of American Indians.

The response from the Jewish Community Center was that of no concern which for me, was a confirmation that for the majority of Jews in America, “the only good Indian is a dead Indian” You can see Baum’s play shown in many Jewish Community Centers throughout the United States.

To my knowledge, there have been few if any attempts on the part of Jewish people whether it be lawyers or organizations, Synagogues, let alone “rich” Jews, to be involved in reparations, economic development, let alone legal representation in personal and collective efforts to assist American Indians in the area of justice. Correct me if I am wrong.

One blatant example is in the use of racist language to identify various ethnic groups. It is not politically correct or acceptable to use the words “kike”, “wetback”, “sambo”, “gook”, “n—-r”, or .”rag head” among others. BUT it is perfectly acceptable by non-American Indians to use the word “REDSKIN”.

This racist word has it’s historical record of “bounty hunters” needing to present PROOF that they murdered a “REDSKIN”. Such proof came in the form of “mutilated body parts” such as testicles, breasts, scalps, etc. so that a they could collect their “blood money”. Any outcry from any element of the Jewish segment of society? B’nai B’rith? Anti-Defamation League? Prominent Jewish lawyers or Government officials? Say “Washington REDSKINS”! What about “Washington NIGGERSKINS”?

Three weeks ago in Rapid City, I met with Orli Gil, Consulate General for the State of Israel. On that day, there was an article in the Rapid City Journal discussing her interaction with prominent citizens and politicians from South Dakota. I noticed that there was not one individual representing any Native American organization or Nation. So I chose to call her office in Chicago and a meeting was arranged with her.

During our discussion I asked her if Israel would be willing to contribute some of her expertise in an area of “economic development”, similar to how Israel has assisted other Nations and Peoples. She brought up the subject of developing a “aqua-culture” project to raise and process trout commercially. I agreed that such a project would be one that could do two things. One provide food and the other, a business enterprise.

To my dismay, at the end of our meeting she made a very disparaging statement. She stated that Israel needed to be concerned about the “reaction” of those who might be critical of such an undertaking. I was shocked! My response to her was, why should Israel be concerned about the reactions of any group or Nation when during the European Holocaust, no one did one thing to stop the extermination of Jews. She had no answer.

But Israel and American Jewish organizations have been and are actively involved in providing economic aid, development, and technical assistance to all other races, cultures, and nations who are in need, suffering from poverty, wars, or natural disasters. But find me ANY efforts by ONE Jewish entity directed at American Indians suffering from the same…just one please!

Here in South Dakota, I have seen one of the most despicable, disgusting, and evil examples of Jewish racism directed at American Indians. It is the direct involvement of Jewish individuals in the Justice Department and FBI in the cover-up of the murder and rape of American Indians. The most glaring example is the rape and murder of Jancita Eagle Deer. She was raped by the former Governor of South Dakota, Bill Janklow, a “closet Jew”. Two weeks before she was to testify, she was found dead…murdered. According to a number of people I have talked to, she was last seen alive with an FBI undercover agent and Janklow. To this day, the FBI and the Justice Department have not questioned, arrested, or indicted Janklow for anything concerning her rape and death.

I met a Jewish Federal Prosecutor at the Rosh Hashanah service here in the Black Hills named Gregg Pederman. I discussed with him the case of a yet to be arrested prominent American Indian Movement member named Floyd Hand who raped 6 women in “ceremonies” by drugging them and that I had two women willing to file charges. He said to call him and I have twice and left messages and that was almost 2 weeks ago.

In my mind, such behaviour is in itself a desecration of what it means to truly be Jewish according to my studies of the Torah and those scriptures that define what being Jewish really is and is not. Such blasphemy may well escape the halls of justice in time…but not in eternity any more then  acts of rape and murder will.

Richard Boyden

  1. toby larsson says:

    I am Jewish and after reading this article I am so ashamed that Jews were there for these atrocities . My father instilled. in me a love and respect for the American Indians when I was a child. That was many years ago. Today I live in NW Montana and plan on applying to the university of Montana for native American studies . I cannot begin to describe the shame I feel. Thank you for educating me. I never knew this.

    • So sorry Toby for NOT getting back to you…YIKES!

      I appreciate the good words as I try to focus on simply TRUTH documented even though I have been called a racist and anti-semite etc. I have lived in Israel and put the ONLY Jewish radio program on air in Kansas City.

      With that said… being a man who has lived among the victims of the American Holocaust… my hope in sharing what I have in the “context of” was to WAKE UP JEWS to their “IDENTITY AND CALLING” to represent Hashem and HIS LOVE was well as awaken them to their PART in the American Holocaust.

      Wondering though…would you please comment on my Dan Snyder article. And be honest please. Thanks.

      Richard Boyden

Journey To The Spirit World By Suicide

Genocide by Suicide

The Deception of Self-Murder

I’m sorry, I’m sorry…I didn’t mean to do it….”

 FOREWORD: There are more suicides by American Indian Youth per capita then among any other ethnic group in America. This article I wrote being inspired by God to do so was for the purpose of both exposing the “spiritual understandings” connected to suicide as well as offering a “spiritual of God” solution.

During a two week period in the month of July and August 08, 2010, there were 4 suicides in the community of Oglala on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. Overall…suicides are on a RISE throughout the Reservation.

This was a email received (12/9/09) concerning the week of (12/2-12/9) from a member of the Rosebud Sioux Tribe. A State of Emergency was declared on the Rosebud Sioux Tribe reservation in 3/07 because of the increase in suicides and attempted suicides. There were 61 attempts from Jan 1-07 to March 12-07  

“Hey we had another suicide you probably heard about last week, also 4 attempted this past weekend, the youngest being 14 year old male, who tried to hang himself but was caught, one cut their wrist, one overdosed, the last just happened last night, didn’t get the info on how they tried. I now am hearing that the kids today are thinking “It’s the in thing to do”…on some of their bebo pages they brag about…if their going to go out, “their going to go out to suicide, end their own chit”. I’m in total disbelief right now, this is a emergency situation. I think what’s needed to be done to try to combat the situation is change their perception of thinking, shove it down their throats, Suicide is evil, something is messed up here. – Anthony Bordeaux Jr. is a Sicangu Lakota and member of the Rosebud Sioux Tribe. 

 Journey To The Spirit World By Suicide

Buddy Red Bow, a traditional Oglala Lakota singer wrote a song entitled “Journey to the Spirit World”, a song about “getting ready” to pass over into the “Spirit World” and into a life of joy and not like the one here. “The Ghost Dance” was and is a prayer expressing the visionary hope and promise of a better life before and after death because the “Red Messiah” who’s name is “Wasu” (Jesus among the Lakota) will return to deliver His people from all that is not of Him in this life. He will raise from the dead those of our relatives that have passed into the Spirit World and we all shall be together again. Traditional Lakota and most other Native American beliefs say our spirit enters into the Spirit World upon the death of our body. Once there, it is our hope and the promise of the Messiah, even Jesus Christ, to be in His presence where we will experience the healing of our hearts, be with our loved ones and relations, and where all suffering and pain is no more forever.

There are many reasons for the death of the body. Some natural such as old age with the body simply wearing out like an old moccasin. Other things contribute to the death of our body such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease and in Indian Country, they are primary killers. Then there are the drug and alcohol death destroying affects on our body, on our brain, heart, liver, and kidneys.

These same drugs and alcohol also allow for “spirit-heart changers” (evil spirits or demons) to overthrow our souls. These evil spirits inspire first thoughts and then the behaviors that hurt and kill as evidenced in rape, abuse, fights, beatings, shootings, stabbings, child molestations, and alcohol connected car wrecks as seen throughout “Indian Country”. These dark spirits work both in us and outside of us through others. They contribute to the destruction of marriages, families, young and old alike. Alcohol is the preferred beverage of the devil and his angels (demons/evil spirits) and is his “death drink” that is used by him to inspire evil Non-Lakota/Non Native American behaviors found among us. Drugs are also used, both illegal and “legal”.

Then there is the death that is different from all others. It is death by self-murder which we call Suicide. Suicide is when we make a choice to “kill ourselves”. We do this because we believe that we will be delivered from all that troubles us here in this life. We are “evil spirit/demon led” to believe this lie. Otherwise we would not attempt to kill ourselves. Native American spirituality does not allow for, inspire, or give examples of suicide as being the will of Tunkasila the Creator…our God.

It is important to understand that suicide is ONLY the killing of ones body. The spirit inside of the body never dies. Only the body dies when we kill ourselves. When the body dies, the spirit continues to live as it immediately leaves the body and enters into the “Spirit World”. After your spirit leaves your body, you find yourself awake then even as you are now in reading these words.

All the feelings, thoughts, and experiences that lead to suicide first begin with a “spiritual thought” that is next acted out through our flesh in the act of killing ourselves.  Before we “kill our body”, we are FIRST “spiritually attacked” in our heart and mind by the evil spirits who give us the “excuse or reasons” to kill ourselves. The ONLY goal of “evil spirits/demons” is to “convince us” that there is no other choice in life but to kill ourselves and that suicide is our only escape from the pain we are suffering here. It should be noted, that the very same demons/spirits that put the reasons in our mind to “kill ourselves” also are responsible for helping create the real life experiences which hurt us.

One of the most used “excuse or reason” put into our heart and mind to murder ourselves is when our heart is betrayed by the one we love, who we find with another. Boyfriend, girlfriend, husband or wife, THIS betrayal of our heart has been said to be the same as death itself for THIS pain is not measurable in words. It is then we begin to experience the thoughts of suicide and we “feel like dying” and this is because the “demons/evil spirits” KNOW that we are now at our weakest. It is also then THEN that the “demons/evil spirits” put the thought into our mind that “killing ourselves” is THE ANSWER for us to escape this pain and to “hurt those that hurt us” because they “broke our heart” when they betrayed us.

Other times of when we are weak spiritually is when we lose a loved one to an untimely death where they die from cancer, an accident, or when a close relative, loved one, boyfriend or close friend, kill themselves. All of these experiences cause spiritual pain to our heart and mind. If we do not understand the promise of the Jesus Christ that we shall be reunited together in the spirit world when we pass over, we find ourselves in our weakest state of mind and then are more easily influenced by the “demonic spirits” who put thoughts in our mind for us to kill ourselves.

How cunning are these evil spirits? Think about this. Not only do they try to get you/us to kill ourselves but they also were the spiritual source of the lusts, thoughts, and feelings and actions on the part of those that chose to betray our love and hurt us! It is the same even when we lose a loved one. They try to use any loss to tempt us with the thought that maybe we now should kill ourselves.

There are other reasons “put into our hearts and minds” to kill ourselves as found in the “memories” of parents, husband or wife, boyfriend or girlfriend never being sober, who drink themselves into total unawareness of us. Children especially suffer because it is they who need most the love and affection of their parents but receive none. Some suffer from beatings and sexual abuse and have nowhere to go or no one to turn to or trust. Young children kill themselves to escape the “hell of home”.

The daily experiences on the majority of reservations are a constant reminder of the past and present oppression. No jobs, houses that are falling apart with no way to fix them, no money for food and bills, to buy things needed for children and babies and the list goes on leaving us with no hope for things to get better. It is this feeling of hopelessness that also pulls us into the dark pit of despair. It is then we are tempted to believe the LIE given to us by evil spirits that death by suicide will deliver us from our pain and suffering and be our “Savior”

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The harsh, oppressive, and inhuman realities of reservation life are NOT an accident. They are made by those who followed the “intelligence” of the same evil spirit who is trying to convince us to kill our self. That spirit is called the “devil”. Think about this. What is the solution he offers you for things to change? Say “get drunk or high” or WORSE , “kill yourself” while he IS the one that created the very “reservation reasons” which he then uses to convince you to destroy yourself!

In the beginning of Native American history, it was the Creator (called Tunkasila among the Lakota) who taught us our spirituality. It was not learned from the White man, the “Catholic-Christians”, the Pope, Mormons, or any other European source. Our spirituality and teachings do not teach us to hurt, betray, humiliate, defile, disrespect, murder, rape, abuse, or desecrate another soul. The Creator said in all our relationships we should do good to one another and love one another in all areas of our life. We are to be faithful to our wives and husbands. We are to be compassionate, generous, and giving, We are to make sure that there are no poor or hungry among us, no homeless, our elders, women and children are to be loved, respected, and taken care of. That is the will of the Creator Tunkasila and when we follow His spirit in being that way, we are then living on the Red Road and are who we were created to be.

To not live this way is to live and experience the spiritual and physical “death” of the Black Road and is not the way of God. When a soul “listens to and follows the evil spirits of the Black Road, we begin to do things that are hurtful to others and ourselves. See how smart the devil is? Of course, while he is doing this, he whispers in our ears “there is no devil…I am no devil”.

A man wrote about an experience he had in the Spirit World. He was shown how evil spirits enter our mind and influence us. While in a hospital and very sick, he suddenly “died” on the operating table and was “dead” for 8 minutes. During this time, he began to experience his spirit leaving his body. The next thing he realized and understood was that he was in the presence and company of one who identified himself as Jesus Christ. It was during this experience with Jesus that he witnessed two most important scenes.

The first one was when he was taken to to a scene where he saw a young man sitting down next to his father and saying “Pops Pops…I am sorry … please tell mom I am sorry…” begging his father to tell his mother over and over again. The problem was, his father could not hear him cry out in this pain and agony. Another scene he saw a young girl crying out to her boyfriend…to forgive her and that she was sorry for what she had done. Again, she could not be heard.

What Jesus revealed was this. He told the man who was with him that “These are those that committed suicide and this was the consequence of their act”!! How powerful and yet sad. They did not know that when they killed themselves that this was what they would be experiencing in the “Spirit World” and having to confront. There is more about this understanding in this writing down below.

The next experience Jesus showed this man was when he was taken into a bar and allowed to witness a scene where he saw many men who were heavily drinking. He also noticed that their were other “spirit bodies” there who were trying to drink the same drink but they were unable. These “spirits without bodies” were trying to grab a drink of alcohol. Each time they tried to grab a drink, their hand passed through the glass. The man then realized the “others” trying to drink were “spirits” of those who had died and were in the Spirit World in this same “need to drink” but could not. In this condition. In the spirit world, they found themselves still craving and wanting to drink but without a “body of flesh”, they could not. This was their torment…to want to drink but to never ever experience again and this was their “eternal condition” in the Spirit World. A word for this is called “hell”.

Then Jesus was directed this man to observe a man who passed out from drinking heavily and fell on the floor. All of a sudden, he was shocked to see this man’s forehead open up a “spiritual hole” in the front of his forehead. All of a sudden, one of the “spirits” that had died and had no body, the one that was trying to drink his drink, IMMEDIATELY entered into him through that opening in his forehead like a flash of lightening.

This experience shows how alcohol and drugs are the “door openers” for demons/evil spirits to enter our hearts and minds. Once “inside of us”, they can then more easily influence our thoughts, feelings, and then our actions. It is when one drinks alcohol and or is doing drugs, that anger, rage, hate, beatings, abuse, rapes, killings etc, take place because they are “evil spirit” inspired. Sometimes one remembers what they do when under the influence of EVIL SPIRITS other times no.

It needs to be understood that the most EVIL of acts we commit are inspired by those “spirits” caste out of Heaven with Lucifer who is Satan the Devil. They are here on earth without bodies. They work is to change our hearts and thinking so that we do the most evil things to one another and ourselves. They are the spirits that convince us to kill ourselves!

So we now we see how these spirits get us to KILL OURSELVES through use of alcohol and drugs. Once they have place in our hearts and minds, they are then able to become one with our thinking and are then more easily able to convince us that “their thoughts” are OURS. They work to get us to believe the LIES they put in our mind that there is only ONE WAY to stop all of our pain, to end the memories of suffering. Finally, they are able to overcome our will power and thinking so that then we cannot tell their thinking from ours. They are so good at what they do, that we are now thinking their thoughts to the point we do not know this. This is how the devil uses alcohol and drugs with their goal being to convince us to KILL OURSELVES. When we believe their lie because they are now in control of our spirit and body…all of our thoughts and feelings and we no longer are aware of this.

This is why alcohol is the preferred beverage of Satan. Alcohol and drugs are more times then not, directly connected to “self-murder”. Remember, that it was the European who first offered alcohol and continues to do so now. Therefore, understand who the Oppressor represents in both this life and eternity. Say Satan who has his regional headquarters in White Clay!

The following story is a powerful, sad, and painful one. During a traditional Lakota wiping of tears ceremony during a sweat, Elder’s Beatrice Whiting, member of the Crow Creek Sioux Tribe and her husband Ed, member of the Rosebud Sioux Tribe, had a revealing and powerful experience “FROM the spirit world”. It came in the form of a young Lakota woman who committed suicide at the age of 17.

While they were singing and praying during their sweat, a light began to appear before them. As it increased in size, they began to see the face of this young woman they new. Her name was Darliss Brown, a member of the Crow Creek Sioux Tribe. Darliss was the daughter of Darla Rabbit and was a past student of Beatrice. Darliss had committed suicide two weeks before. Why? Because her heart was betrayed when she found her boyfriend with another girl. Darliss was also carrying “their” child.

The spirit of Darliss was weeping and cried out saying “I am sorry, I am sorry, I didn’t mean to do it”. Beatrice saw her suffering and saw that Darliss NOW realized the consequences of her self-murder. In the spirit world, Jesus allowed Darliss to experience and feel in her heart and mind every single emotion of pain and sorrow of those that loved her as if it was her own. As a result, she suffered “with them” because of what she did. She wept as they wept and mourned as they mourned over her death when they found out, at the wake, the funeral, and in the private places of weeping and wailing where no one saw them except her!

Darliss saw the hurt she caused her mother, nephews, nieces, aunts, uncles, friends and relatives. This was the consequence of her self-murder. No escape, no joy, no deliverance from THIS pain and suffering. This was the consequence of her being “deceived” to kill herself.  She was so sorry she HURT THEM THAT MUCH and had she known, she would never have killed herself.

One has to ask when you are being given thoughts by demons/evil spirits to kill yourself, do YOU want to hurt those who love you THAT MUCH? Darliss had been deceived into killing herself and was sorry but ONLY after her spirit left her body and entered into the spirit world. There her awareness was immediate and it was there that Jesus allowed her to understand that suicide was “demon/evil spirit inspired/alcohol/drug connected” and that she believed the lie of the devil and his evil spirits that they put into her mind. We now see how alcohol was the door opener for these evil spirits to enter into her body, heart, and mind…even her soul.

On November 25th of 0/7, four years after Darliss killed herself, Jesus allowed her mother to receive a visit from her daughter. Darliss came to her mother from the “spirit world” and into “time”. Darla was in her bedroom lying on her bed. She was holding a photo of Darliss and still grieving and weeping for her and still feeling the pain of missing her in her heart. All of a sudden, she felt a cool breeze in the room. At that moment, Darliss appeared before her in spirit and spoke to her in comforting words, “Mom, it’s all right, it’s all right”. Darla felt the love of her daughter for her as she spoke to her and that she was still sorrowful for what she had done as she was still grieving over the pain she had caused her mother and others, four years later.

Few who commit suicide are allowed by Jesus to come back from the “spirit world” to explain or share anything. They only see and witness the suffering of those they hurt. It is like the “two way mirror” in a police movie where you see but are not seen by those on the other side. You weep and wail and cry out for forgiveness and try to explain to them your mistake to all those you loved and who loved you, but it is no use because you can neither be seen or heard. You realize once you are in the “spirit world” that you were deceived by the devil and his evil spirits into believing the LIE that committing suicide was the “right thing or cool thing do” or that all your “troubles” would be over. This was a lie because now you suffer the torment and pain in realizing your act of self-murder cannot be undone. This is and will be your torment…or “hell”. Is there an end to this suffering? YES and there is forgiveness but only when Jesus determines you have learned your lesson. Then there is a healing. The question for everyone to ask is, do we want to kill ourselves to experience this?

Cherokee Walking Eagle Kills In Water is a Sicangu Lakota and member of the of the Rosebud Sioux Tribe. She lost her daughter Crystal to suicide. Crystal was a mother of six children. She also was drinking alcohol when she killed herself. She likewise was deceived by “evil spirits” into believing the lie that she could escape the pain that was in her life by committing suicide. Cherokee also had a “spirit world” experience with her daughter Crystal that helped her in her grieving. Three weeks after her daughter’s funeral, she had a “real life vision where Crystal appeared to her and started gently rubbing her head. She could feel her touch on her head. Crystal asked her mother “Are you alright”? Cherokee said “Yes, I am alright”. She felt Crystals concern for her as well as her sorrow over what she did. Cherokee wept during this visit from her daughter and was thankful that Jesus allowed Crystal to come to her as this helped her heal. When she awoke from the dream, Crystal had gone back to the “spirit world”.

Evil spirits will destroy our soul directly or through others using alcohol and drugs which are the tools of the Devil. He is then able to trick us (as the “trickster from hell) into believing the lie of suicide. The truth is suicide only releases our spirit into the spirit world when our body dies and when we arrive there in spirit, which is instantly, we then begin to suffer the consequences of this deception with no place to hide from the witnessing of the pain we cause those that loved us.

So what is the answer and alternative to suicide? It is the restoring of our love for one another as inspired by and demonstrated by Jesus Christ when He once walked among Native Peoples on this land. Crazy Horse was that example, Sitting Bull also was. The Spirit of the Creator manifested in the flesh through Jesus, must be restored in our hearts again. When that happens, no longer will we do or say anything to hurt another and thus we will no longer be used by the devil to be the source of death and destruction of other souls or our own. This also means we no longer use alcohol or do drugs. Until we cease this evil, we will continue suffering as a people individually and as a Nation.

The Black Rap Culture is also a tool of of the devil and his evil spirits. They are working hard to place in the hearts of young Native youth the thoughts, feelings, and actions that are demeaning to young Native men and women, Elders etc. This evil spirit of the THIS BLACK ROAD inspires violence, hate, vengeance, abuse of women, inspires murders and reduces Native sexuality to something disrespectful where women are dishonored, abused, raped, beaten etc. A Native females is not a “bitch” or “ho”. She is to be treated with dignity and respect. That is being truly Native. The opposite is the way of the devil. Native men have no excuse to be or do the same and in the spirit world, if they do not stop this behavior while alive, they will suffer the eternal consequences…say hell and deservingly so. In fact, Native men who treat Native women and children this way, will be with those blacks and whites who have done the same to their women as well as Native women.

What does all this mean in “real time’? It means one ceases to do in their life all that you know hurts and harms another including oneself. You do what you must to quit drinking, doing drugs, gambling. You seek out help, go to ceremonies, and pray to your Heavenly Father in the name of Jesus Christ to be given the power to change. It means you go to those you have hurt and tell them you are sorry and ask for their forgiveness and that you forgive those that hurt you. It means to become once again the faithful husband and wife, the mother or father that has been missed and is needed by your children, the relative and friend that was once there and needs to return. It means you forgive yourself even as Jesus has forgiven you. It means you begin to love yourself because you loved by Jesus and that His example of love is the example you were created to also be in your life for that is truly being Native.

It means that while you are here alive in your flesh before you journey to the spirit world, that you make this change while you still can so that you can undo the wrong which you have done to others. It means you no longer allow yourself to be deceived and directed by the evil spirits and be used by them in the destroying of your own people, your women and children, and yourself. Because when that happens, it is to late to love those that are lost even as it is to late to return from the spirit world when you kill yourself because of what others have done to you. It means turning to your Heavenly Father and praying for the strength to do what you must, for Him to heal you of all the pain and suffering you have caused or experienced in your life, because it cannot be done without His power which is His love for you.

This is the way to heal the broken hoop, to break the cycle of oppression and hate experienced and learned from Satan. God is waiting for us to turn to Him and ask for the strength to change in our hearts. He promises to heal us of our pain. That is what the Sun Dance is really about, as shown by the ultimate sacrifice of THE First Sun Dancer, even Jesus, the ultimate gift of healing and love. He is asking us this day to decide which road to take, the Red Road of blessing and healing and which restores our love for Him and one for another or the “Black Road” so many find ourselves on now, the one of evil inspired by the devil himself, the one of cursing, death, and hell, the one destroying us individually and collectively

The choice is laid before us to have restored that which was lost at Wounded Knee on December 28, 1890 in the vision, purpose, and prayer of the Ghost Dance. It is said in our prophecies given to us by Jesus  that the Wasichu (White man) and Oppressor will never change for our good and that is the reason why Turtle Island will be “cleansed” by Him in the judgments soon to come upon this land.

This is why we must pray together to Tunkasila…even Almighty God, in the name of the One who represents all that is Holy, Jesus Christ, to deliver us from those evil spirits represented in the past and present so that the influences and affects of the devil are no more found in our hearts. When this happens, we once again can be called the people of the Almighty God and Jesus Christ and experience the answer of the Ghost Dance in having restored unto us the blessings we once experienced when He was in our midst on this land as His People.

When this happens, we will again be his Holy people, a people of one heart, one mind, dwelling in righteousness with no poor among us. It is because of His Sun Dance that death and hell IS overcome and our bodies and spirits healed and restored one to another. It is because of Jesus Christ that we will experience His promise of all of us being united together not only in the Spirit World but also on this earth!

Footnote

Richard Boyden is available to speak at schools, community centers, church’s and (or elsewhere). He is a former instructor at Haskell Indian Nations University and taught “Investigative Journalism-Introduction to Radio Broadcasting”, former Marine and combat veteran. He is as an “attempted suicide survivor” who knows from personal experience what the spiritual realities and consequences of suicide are.

He can be reached at 605-939-1703 day or night or email at operationmorningstar@gmail.com

He has documented information on the suicide connection to anti-depressants on the OMS Web site at www.operationmorningstar.org

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