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Was Columbus A Mass Murderer, Rapist and Sex Trafficking Pedophile Jew and “Animal”?

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Introduction: I am  identifying and documenting  “Columbus The Jew” and his “animalistic” crimes against Indigenous Peoples. What qualifies a Gentile to be labelled as a animal and worse? Read and learn below in the Jewish Talmud that non-Jew  Gentiles are labeled animals as quoted!

 

About me: Having lived in Israel in 1972, my college room mate was an Israeli, had a personal letter posted on Benjamin “Bibi” Netanyahu’s web page warning him or a REAL anti semite William Jefferson Clinton as well as having put the only Jewish radio program on air in Kansas City Missouri hosted by a “Sabra” Shula Romano Horing Separates Me from most reading this blog.

I am also United States Marine combat veteran Vietnam era. I taught investigative journalism at Haskell Indian nations University. I’ve lived on Indian reservations in South Dakota and I was directly involved in suicide counseling. I also ran a charity shipping 500 tons of food and other needed items to those reservations with little or no Jewish help.

http://palestinefreevoice.blogspot.com/2012/04/jewish-racism-and-genocide-of-american.html?m=1

Richard Boyden

YOU reading this who are not Jewish by Jewish definition, (see below) THEN YOU ARE ANIMALS!

 

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This blog is dedicated to anyone that is attacked for pointing out the MANY “Holocausts” committed by Synagogue of Satan Jews DOCUMENTED…say Indigenous inhabitants of the Americas for example.

Read and learn why as documented by me in this blog. “6 million” Jews murdered by those financed by Jews  vs. well over 100 million Indigenous  murdered with the documented Jew Columbus guilty of 300 thousand murders himself as well as being the “Point Son of Satan and Demon” for the other over 100 million in the America’s.

America’s Jews Are Driving America’s Wars

Holocausts: Theirs and the Many Ours

The Jewish Holocaust of “6 million” financed by Jewish Bankers vs. the American Holocaust of over 100 MILLION indigenous started by Columbus the Jewish “animal” and Jewish money.

Dare To Compare: Americanizing the Holocaust by LILLIAN FRIEDBERG (who is a REAL JEW unlike Columbus the Jewish “Animal”!)

https://richardboydenreport.wordpress.com/2015/12/23/the-american-holocaust-versus-the-jewish-holocaust/

Columbus the Jew and the Conquest of the New World by David Stannard

Unknown to most people is the enormity of Columbus’ genocidal actions, as well as its deadly legacy lasting into modern times. Genocide expert David Stannard has asserted that, beginning in 1492 with Columbus,  Europeans collectively killed between 70 million to 100 million Indigenous People (within 80 years).

In his book American Holocaust, Stannard calls this “the largest ongoing holocaust in the history of humanity.”

The consequences of this Indigenous Holocaust were world-changing: 95% of Indigenous People were killed by European actions, 100% of Indigenous lands were stolen, and European-descent people became the most prosperous people on the planet.

https://www.amazon.com/American-Holocaust-Conquest-New-World/dp/0195085574#reader_0195085574

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toby larsson A JEW sent me this after reading a ;revious blog about Jewish part of the genocide of Native Americans!

I am Jewish and after reading this article I am so ashamed that Jews were there for these atrocities . My father instilled in me a love and respect for the American Indians when I was a child. That was many years ago. Today I live in NW Montana and plan on applying to the university of Montana for native American studies . I cannot begin to describe the shame I feel. Thank you for educating me. I never knew this. (Previous Blog Comment)

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” Hear the word of the LORD, ye children of Israel: for the LORD hath a controversy with the inhabitants of the land, because there is no truth, nor mercy, nor knowledge of God in the land.  By swearing, and lying, and killing, and stealing, and committing adultery, they break out, and blood toucheth blood.  Therefore shall the land mourn, and every one that dwelleth therein shall languish, with the beasts of the field, and with the fowls of heaven; yea, the fishes of the sea also shall be taken away. “

“Woe unto them that rise up early in the morning, that they may follow strong drink; that continue until night, till wine inflame them! And the harp, and the viol, the tabret, and pipe, and wine, are in their feasts: but they regard not the work of the LORD, neither consider the operation of his hands. Therefore my people are gone into captivity, because they have no knowledge: and their honourable men are famished, and their multitude dried up with thirst. Therefore hell hath enlarged herself, and opened her mouth without measure: and their glory, and their multitude, and their pomp, and he that rejoiceth, shall descend into it.

פקד עון אבות על בנים

Punishing Children for the
Sins of their Parents

https://thetorah.com/punishing-children-for-the-sins-of-their-parents/

http://www.alhatorah.org/Are_Children_Punished_for_Parents%27_Sins

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Columbus’ original name was Cristobol Colon; the son of Domingo Colon and Susanna Fontanarossa, the daughter of Jew Jacob Abraham. According to Levitan: “No Spanish Jew could ever have expected aid from the king and queen of Spain, so the explorer (Columbus) claimed to be an Italian Catholic.”

Why Columbus Day Should Be A Jewish Holiday

Columbus the Mass Murdering of 300,000 Indigenous People Jewish  “Animal”!

After he failed to contact the emperor of China, the traders of India, or the merchants of Japan, Columbus decided to pay for his voyage in the one important commodity he had found in ample supply — human lives. He seized 1,200 Taino Indians from the island of Hispaniola, crammed as many onto his ships as would fit, and sent them to Spain, where they were paraded naked through the streets of Seville and sold as slaves in 1495. Columbus tore children from their parents, husbands from wives. On board Columbus’ slave ships, hundreds died; the sailors tossed the Indian bodies into the Atlantic.

Because Columbus captured more Indian slaves than he could transport to Spain in his small ships, he put them to work in mines and plantations which he, his family, and followers created throughout the Caribbean.

His marauding band hunted Indians for sport and profit — beating, raping, torturing, killing, and then using the Indian bodies as food for their hunting dogs. Within four years of Columbus’ arrival on Hispaniola, his men had killed or exported one-third of the original Indian population of 300,000.http://www.danielnpaul.com/ChristopherColumbus.html

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http://www.ramsheadpress.com/messiah/ch16.htm

Columbus’ mother was Susanna [Shoshana in Hebrew, hnvwv], (a Jewish name)….” He (Garcia) also found: “…in the archives of Pontevedra, a record setting forth that in the fifteenth century, there lived in that city, a family by the name of Colon, ‘several members of which bore the same forenames as are to be found among the Colombos of Genoa, the kinsmen of Christopher Columbus. In 1434 and 1437, there was at Pontevedra a Domingo Colon; in 1438 a Bartolomé Colon; in 1496 a Cristobo Colon; in 1434 a Blanca Colon. As we shall see, Domenico was the name of Columbus’ father; Bartolomeo that of his younger brother; and Bianchinetta was the name of Columbus’ sister.” He also notes: “…the devoted friends of Columbus, Juan Cabrero, Luis de Santangel, Gabriel Sanchez, and Alfonso de la Caballeria, [were] all men of Jewish extraction.”

Christopher Columbus was in fact a Marrano Jew. The Marranos, sometimes called converses (the converts) were the Spanish Jews, who lived and prospered under the Arab rule in Spain, and later after the Christian recapture of Spain, pretended to convert to Christianity to escape the Spanish Inquisition of 1350 initiated by the Catholic Church to assert Christianity throughout all Europe. Cecil Roth, the British Jewish historian stated: “It was not difficult for insincere, temporizing Jews to become insincere temporizing Christians.”  (Cecil Roth’s “History of the Marranos”, Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1932)

Many Jewish historians such as Cecil Roth (“Personalities and Events In Jewish History”; Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1953) and Tina Levitan (“Jews in American Life”, New York: Hebrew Publishing 1969) asserted that there are strong evidence that Columbus was a Jew.  Levitan found a reference to Columbus’ Jewishness in a diplomatic document written by the French Ambassador to Spain, who referred to Columbus as “the Jew”.  Columbus’ original name was Cristobol Colon; the son of Domingo Colon and Susanna Fontanarossa, the daughter of Jew Jacob Abraham. According to Levitan: “No Spanish Jew could ever have expected aid from the king and queen of Spain, so the explorer (Columbus) claimed to be an Italian Catholic.”

Both Jewish Historians; George Cohen in his book “Jews in the Making of America”; The Stratford Co. Boston, MA 1924, and Dr. M. Kayserling in his book “Christopher Columbus and the Participation of the Jews in the Spanish and Portuguese Discoveries”; New York: Hermon Press, 1894, proclaimed that wealthy Marrano Jews such as Luis de Santangelo, Gabriel Sanchez, Juan Cabrero and others, not Queen Isabella had financed Columbus’ expeditions. Santangelo and Cabrero invested 17,000 ducats (more than $100,000) while other Jews such as Abraham Ben Samuel Zacuto provided astronomy and navigation equipment.

The JEW Franco and his men committed some of the cruelest atrocities against another race ever recorded. Columbus used any pretext as an excuse to kill and torture. Those poor souls who could not pay tribute to him had their hands cut off and were left to bleed to death. He was documented by the chronicles of Las Casas, know as Brev’sima relaci-n, to have partaken in mass hangings, roasting people on spits, burnings at the stake, and hacking young children to death as punishment for the most minor of crimes.
He and his men massacred the natives, sometimes hundreds at a time for sport, making bets on who could split a man in two, or cut a head off in one blow. By 1542 there were only 200 Taino remaining on the island and soon afterwords they were considered extinct http://www.thepeoplesvoice.org/TPV3/Past-News.php/2013/10/12/christopher-columbus-and-the-genocide-of-1

“Spanish scholars Jose Erugo, Otero Sanchez and Nicholas Dias Perez have concluded that Columbus was, in fact, a secret Jew whose voyage to the Indies had another altogether different objective than he claimed.

The content of Columbus’ personal letters and diary entries prove most revealing. One telling difference between Columbus’ personal writings and those of his contemporaries was the language it was written in, namely one unrecognizable to most native Spaniards. Linguistics professor Estelle Irizarry, after analyzing the language of hundreds of similar letters concluded that it was written in Castilan Spanish or Ladino, a Jewish version of the Spanish language, analogous to what the Yiddish language is to German.

Another revelation is in the mysterious monogram found on his the letters, written right to left. To quote Semitic linguist Maurice David, who discovered the meaning of the symbols, “On all of these… intimate letters the attentive reader can plainly see at the left top corner a little monogram which is… in fact, nothing more…. than an old Hebrew greeting….frequently used among religious Jews all over the world even to this day”. The symbol he was referring to were the Hebrew letters bet and heh, which we know to stand for b’ezrat Hashem, or with God’s help. Not surprisingly, Columbus’ letter to the King and Queen was the only one of his 13 letters studied that did not contain this symbol.

Three of the wishes in Columbus’ will and testament also lend a number of telling clues to his identity. One request in his will was that one-tenth of his income be given as charity to provide dowry for poor girls, a commonly practiced Jewish custom that stretches far back. He also requested to have money given to a certain Jew who lived near the Jewish quarter of Lisbon.

Another particularly tell tale note in his will seemed to be somewhat of a hidden signature, a triangular form of dots and letters that resembled inscriptions found on gravestones of Jewish cemeteries in Spain. Columbus even instructed his children to maintain this mysterious symbol for perpetuity. The hidden signature, when translated, was actually a prayer in lieu of the standard Hebrew kaddish, which was forbidden in Spain. This ploy allowed Columbus to covertly instruct his children to recite the kaddish prayer for him.” http://jewishvoiceny.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=17204:christopher-columbus-secret-jew&catid=121&Itemid=776

Columbus Was A Jew Sources:

https://www.momentmag.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/Christopher-Columbus.pdf

http://www.ramsheadpress.com/messiah/ch16.html

https://www.breakingisraelnews.com/85655/christopher-columbus-jew-led-belief-prophet-isaiah/

https://www.amazon.com/Christopher-Columbus-Secret-Mike-Evans/dp/1629610437

https://www.amazon.com/Christopher-Columbuss-Jewish-Roots-Frances/dp/0876685866/ref=pd_lpo_sbs_14_t_1?_encoding=UTF8&psc=1&refRID=XX93KPSW8QS8MDZ8WZQR

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Question. Could the Jews referred to and their crimes against Non Jews believe “The Soul of a Jew is superior to the Soul of a Non Jew”?

Evidence of their crimes against non-Jews documented give us but one answer!

Yes!

Read and Learn!!

The Soul of a Jew and The Soul of a Non Jew. The Superiority of the Jewish Soul: A Brief Survey http://www.hakirah.org/Vol%2016%20Balk.pdf

Teachings of the Jewish Talmud

“The Jews are called human beings, but the non-Jews are not humans. They are beasts.” Talmud: Baba mezia, 114b

“The Akum (non-Jew) is like a dog. Yes, the scripture teaches to honor the dog more than the non-Jew.” Ereget Raschi Erod. 22 30.

“Even though God created the non-Jew they are still animals in human form. It is not becoming for a Jew to be served by an animal. Therefore he will be served by animals in human form”. Midrasch Talpioth, p. 255, Warsaw 1855

 “A pregnant non-Jew is no better than a pregnant animal”. Coschen hamischpat 405.

 “The souls of non-Jews come from impure sprits and are called pigs”. Jalkut Rubeni gadol 12b.

 “Although the non-Jew has the same body structure as the Jew, they compare with the Jew like a monkey to a human”. Schene luchoth haberith, p. 250 b

“If you eat with a Gentile, it is the same as eating with a dog”. Tosapoth, Jebamoth 94b.

“If a Jew has a non-Jewish servant or maid who dies, one should not express sympathy to the Jew. You should tell the Jew: “God will replace ‘your loss’, just as if one of his oxen or asses had died”. Jore dea 377

“Sexual intercourse between Gentiles is like intercourse between animals”. Talmud Sanhedrin 74b.

“It is permitted to take the body and the life of a Gentile”. Sepher ikkarim III c 25.

“It is the law to kill anyone who denies the Torah. The Christians belong to the denying ones of the Torah”. Coschen hamischpat 425 Hagah 425. 5.

“A heretic Gentile you may kill outright with your own hands”. Talmud, Abodah Zara, 4b.

“Every Jew, who spills the blood of the godless (non-Jews), is doing the same as making a sacrifice to God”. Talmud: Bammidber raba c 21 & Jalkut 772.

“If a Jew is tempted to do evil he should go to a city where he is not known and do the evil there”.

https://sites.google.com/site/onedemocraticstatesite/Home/quotes/quotes-5

The Talmud and Bible Believers.The Talmud – Five Deaths To Jesus the Real Jew

Jesus, as stated in both the Talmud and Jewish Encyclopedia, gets “four legal methods of execution” and is Crucified as well, as a blasphemer of Pharisee Judaism. Jesus stoned, then “hanged” or crucified, (Sanhedrin 43a‑45b; Sanhedrin 67a) where under another pony name (Ben Stada) Jesus is identified as “Jesus of Nazareth.” As to Judas, we are told (Under the Trial and death of Jesus) that: “when Judas found he could not touch Jesus in any way, in aerial battle, he defiled him” (the “privy concept,” once again, which runs through the Talmud). Jesus’ apostles all killed. (Sanhedrin 43a-b) Their names are decoded by the Jewish Encyclopedia. Jesus crucified as a “blasphemer,” (Sanhedrin 46a) Jewish Encyclopedia. Jesus burned (Sanhedrin 52a); manner of burning, (Yebamoth 6b) verified by Jewish Encyclopedia under “Balaam.”

Christ is “lowered into dung up to his armpits then a hard cloth was placed within a soft one, wound round his neck and the two loose ends pulled in opposite directions forcing him to open his mouth. A wick was then lit, and thrown into his mouth so that it descended into his body and burnt his bowels…his mouth was forced open with pinchers against his wishes. (Sanhedrin 52a) And: “The death penalty of ‘burning’ was executed by pouring molten lead through the condemned man’s mouth into his body, burning his internal organs.” (Hebamoth 12b)

Jesus strangled: “He was lowered into dung up to his armpits then a hard cloth was placed within a soft one, wound round his neck, and the two ends pulled in opposite directions until he was dead.” (Talmud, Sanhedrin 52a) This is repeated (Sanhedrin 106b) and verified by the Jewish Encyclopedia page 467. Jesus in hell where His punishment is “boiling in hot semen.” (Talmud, Gittin 57a) The subject is identified as Jesus in a footnote, also in the Jewish Encyclopedia under “Balaam.”

Christians in hell (in the above passage) are punished by “boiling hot excrement” which is the punishment for all who mock “at the words of the sages” (i.e. the Talmud). Jesus “committed bestiality,” “corrupted the people,” is “turned into hell.” (Talmud, Sanhedrin 105a) Jesus “limped on one foot” and “was blind in one eye,” “He practiced enchantment by means of his membrum,” “He committed bestiality with his ass,” he was a fool who “did not even know his beast’s mind.” (Talmud, Sanhedrin 105a‑105b) http://israelect.com/reference/WillieMartin/A-Talmud%20&%20Bible%20Believers%20%5bA%5d.htm

The Jewish Holocaust of “6 million” financed by Jewish Bankers vs. the American Holocaust of over 100 MILLION indigenous started by Columbus the Jewish “animal” and Jewish money.

Dare To Compare: Americanizing the Holocaust by LILLIAN FRIEDBERG (who is a REAL JEW unlike Columbus the Jewish “Animal”!)

https://richardboydenreport.wordpress.com/2015/12/23/the-american-holocaust-versus-the-jewish-holocaust/

Columbus the Jew and the Conquest of the New World by David Stannard

Unknown to most people is the enormity of Columbus’ genocidal actions, as well as its deadly legacy lasting into modern times. Genocide expert David Stannard has asserted that, beginning in 1492 with Columbus,  Europeans collectively killed between 70 million to 100 million Indigenous People (within 80 years). In his book American Holocaust, Stannard calls this “the largest ongoing holocaust in the history of humanity.” The consequences of this Indigenous Holocaust were world-changing: 95% of Indigenous People were killed by European actions, 100% of Indigenous lands were stolen, and European-descent people became the most prosperous people on the planet.

https://www.amazon.com/American-Holocaust-Conquest-New-World/dp/0195085574#reader_0195085574

Theirs and Ours

The Armenian Genocide was Jewish spawned

Holocausts: Theirs and the Many Ours

Theirs and OursThe month of April commemorates many historical genocides. Among these is the Zionist total destruction and massacre of Palestinian town of Deir Yassin that ushered the beginning of the still-going on Palestinian Holocaust. As a Palestinian I could not help but revisit, research and re-evaluate the role of Zionists in the many other Holocausts around the world and compare them to the Jewish Holocaust.

The Holocaust; the burning of the round figure of 6 million Jews in Nazi gas chambers, is considered by many to be the most unique event in the whole human history. This event had morphed into multiple shapes. It had become a religion with memorials and museums erected in every Western country to drill the idea in the minds of new generations especially Jews. It had become a vendetta with Jewish “detectives” with the mindset of “never forget and never forgive” chasing Nazi Holocaust criminals all over the world to bring them to “Jewish justice” in Israeli courts. It has become a taboo, whose study and research, as a historical event, by academics has become a punishable crime in European countries. It has become a psychological tool to pin heavy blame on the World for letting it happen. It has become a political game where enormous amounts of Jewish money would go to politicians, who sympathize with Holocaust survivors and with Israel. It has become a colonial weapon justifying Zionist occupation of Palestine.  It has become an industry by which Israel and the millions of so-called Holocaust survivals embezzle large sums of money as reparation from Germany, its corporations, its insurance companies, its people, and from other European corporations.

Lately these Holocaust survivors in the US are pressuring the Congress to formulate legal bills that allow them to use American courts to sue European companies who allegedly cooperated in any way with the Nazis leading to the Holocaust. American legislators had produced such bills as the Holocaust Rail Justice Act and the Holocaust Insurance Accountability Act allowing these survivors to sue insurance companies for $20 billion and European rail companies such as the French Société Nationale des Chemins de fer Français (SNCF). It is interesting to note that such bills came after SNCF had won a bid on a $2.6 billion rail projects linking some major American cities together.

The rounded 6 million number is in itself a very interesting figure. It brings to memory other 6 million Jews who were allegedly slaughtered after WWI according to one former governor of the State of N.Y., Martin Glynn, who published such story in “The American Hebrew” in October 31st 1919 under the title “The Crucifixion of Jews Must Stop”. He stated that six million Jewish men and women and eight hundred thousand Jewish babies whose blood “ran like gutters of a slaughter house” in cities of Romania, Poland and Ukrainia. Between 1919 and 1927 the figure of 6 million Jewish victims was reported many times in the American media. It was reported in New York Times issues of October 31st, November 12th, December 3rd of 1919 issues, in 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 7th May 1920 issues, and in April 21st and December 4th 1926 issues, just to mention only one media outlet. It is, paradoxically, interesting to remember that Chaim Weizmann, then the president of the Zionist World Organization, addressed the 1936 Peel Commission that partitioned Palestine, affirming that 6 million Jews were living in all Europe as if in a prison (Thomas Mann; “Sieben Manifeste zur judische Frage, Seven Manifests about the Jewish Question”; Jos. Meizer Verlag, Darmstadt 1966. P. 18).  The 6 million figure seems to have a significant symbol in the alleged saga of Jewish suffering. According to Benjamin Blech’s book “The Secret of Hebrew Words” ;(Jason Aronson, Northvale, NJ, 1991, p. 214) there is a Jewish prophecy promising Jewish return to their alleged promised land after the slaughter of 6 million of them. It seems that this 6 million figure is based on mythical religious colonial ambition rather than any verifiable factual statistical knowledge.

A brief study of the three thousand years of Jewish history leads one to the realization that Zionism is just another modern term given to the religious-Jewish-world-control dream. Starting with their Old Testament and up to their terrorist colonial Israeli project in Palestine one cannot help but conclude that exploitations, sexual degeneracy, theft, treachery, brutality, murder, random killing, communal massacres, total destruction, and the death of all non-Jews (Goyims) are only parts and parcels of the daily life and existence of this Jewish religiously racist collective. Since their descendant onto the land of Canaanites the Jews had perpetrated the most egregious total annihilation not just of its indigenous population but also the annihilation of other nations around the world that surmounted any alleged Holocaust of their own.

Detailing these Jewish crimes, whether perpetrated directly by Jews or in proxy, requires large volumes. This article will deal only with few and the most recent.

The annihilation of at least 20 million Russian citizens (Russian Holocaust) by Jewish officers during the Zionist planned Bolshevik Revolution is a well known case. The American Hebrew Magazine, New York, September 10th, 1920 confessed that “The Bolshevik Revolution in Russia was the work of Jewish planning and Jewish dissatisfaction. Our plan is to have a New World Order. What worked so wonderfully in Russia is going to become Reality for the whole world”. Winston Churchill, himself, warned in an article published in February 8th 1920 issue of the London Illustrated Sunday Herald that Bolshevism is a Jewish worldwide conspiracy. The Israeli leading ynetnews addressed this Russian Holocaust in 2006 by stating that “… some of the greatest murderers of modern times were Jewish”. In December 1917 Stalin established The All-Russian Extraordinary Commission for Combating Counter-Revolution and Sabotage known as Cheka, renamed later as GPU, MKVD, MVD and finally KGB, who’s around 80% of its rank-and-file agents were Jews.

Due to Stalin’s collectivization orders many Russian towns were confiscated, their citizens,  whose majority were Christians, arrested, tortured and killed, their churches were destroyed, while synagogues were preserved, by these Jewish agents. Among the worst mass murdering Jewish agents were Genrikh Yagoda, Christian butcher Lazar Kaganovich, Lavrentija Berija, and Ilya Ehrenburg just to mention few. Yagoda was responsible for the murder of 10 million Russian citizens.  Kaganovich destroyed the entire Ukrainian farming and peasant population; 14 million of them (Der Spiegel, Germany, 35/1991 p. 151). Berija murdered 27,500 Polish officers, soldiers, and civilians in what is known as Katyn-Massacre (Der Spiegel, Germany, 8/1996 p.147). Ehrenburg murdered 3 million women, children, and old people in eastern territory of Germany (Frankfut Allgemeine Zeitung, Franfurt, Feb. 28th, 1995 p.7).

Many may be surprised to read that the Armenian Genocide (Holocaust) was perpetrated, not by the Turks, but by Turkish Jewry known as Crypto-Jews, or Marranos, or Donmeh. For political reasons many Jews in many countries pretend to convert to other religions in order to rise to influential political positions in order to adopt pro-Zionist policies. Israel Zangwill, a prominent and influential Zionist, explained this tactic in his article “The Jewish Race” in The Independent, volume 71, number 3271, dated August 10th 1911.  Those crypto-Jews formed the “Committee for Union and Progress” (Ittihad ve Terakke) that led the Young Turk Revolution overthrowing the Turkish Empire. The Young Turk Revolution was financed and led by the Salonika Committee that was established by Zionist Masonic Jews of Salonika, Greece, such as Emmanuel Carasso, Salem, Sassun, Fardji, with the cooperation of influential Turkish crypto-Jews Djavid Bey and the Baldji family. Sir Gerard Lowther, UK Ambassador to Ottoman Empire from 1908 – 1913, exposed this Jewish takeover in numerous letters to the British Foreign Office revealing the names of Jews from Salonika and crypto-Jews, whose ultimate goal was to acquire Palestine for the Jews through the eliminating of Sultan Abdulhamid II, who rejected Herzl’s offer to give Palestine to the Zionists as a debt repayment. All this was reported by The London Times (July 11th, 1911 p. 5) under the title of “Jews and the Situation in Albania”.

Armenians were running the major businesses and professions in Turkish Empire keeping it economically successful. They formed a rich class; an intelligentsia that gained influential political positions in the Empire. Zionists wanted to control the empire by inciting internal ethnic conflicts to get rid of Armenians and to take over their businesses and political positions. So they promised Christian Armenian leaders to regain independent Armenia if they help dismantle the empire, and at the same time they promised Muslim Kurdish leaders to form independent Kurdistan if they exterminated Armenians. In this way Zionists incited religious war to weaken and to drain the empire financially. The Armenians were duped by Zionists’ promises and publically endorsed the Balfour Declaration hoping that UK would protect them from the Turks and support them in forming an independent Armenian State. Crypto-Jews, then, led Sultan Abdul Hamid to believe that Armenian revolutionaries were conspiring with foreign Christian missionaries to take over the empire, and prompted him to order the Young Turks, mainly crypto-Jews, to commit atrocities against Armenians to put down any revolution.

Zionist crypt-Jews, not Turks, were principally responsible for the Armenian Holocaust. Lord Bryce stated in 1915: “High Muslim religious authorities condemned the massacres ordered by Abdul Hamid. In some cases the Governors, being pious and humane men, refused to execute the orders that had reached them, and endeavored to give what protection they could to the unfortunate Armenians.”

Yair Auron wrote in his book “Zionism and the Armenian Genocide: The Banality of Indifference”: “The fact that Jews were involved in the acts of murder of Armenians in 1895 and 1896 is confirmed by internal Jewish archival documentation.” To get more in depth details about Zionist Jewish genocide of Armenians follow the link to read Christopher Jon Bjerknes’ research “The Jewish Genocide of Armenian Christians”, and his interview.

The African Holocaust perpetrated by Jewish slave traders is still unknown by many. In his book “Jews and Judaism in the United States; a Documentary History” (New York, Behrman House, Inc., 1983) Rabbi Raphael stated on pages 14 and 23-25 that “Jews also took an active part in the Dutch colonial slave trade … In Curacao in the seventeenth century, as well as in the British colonies of Barbados and Jamaica in the eighteenth century, Jewish merchants played a major role in the slave trade.  In fact, in all the American colonies, whether French (Martinique), British, or Dutch, Jewish merchants frequently dominated.”

The first documented Jew immigrant to America came from Holland in 1654 and settled in what was known, then, as New Amsterdam (New York). Many other Jews followed and settled along the East Coast forming six Jewish communities in Newport, Charleston, New York, Philadelphia, Richmond, and Savannah. They engaged mainly into the business of alcohol distillery and/or slave trade. There was a period when Newport, Rhode Island, was commonly referred to as “The Jewish Newport-World center of Slave Commerce.” The most known of these Jewish slave traders were Aaron Lopez, Felix (cha-cha) de Souza (known as the Prince of Slavers), Isaac Gomez, Abraham Touro, Moses Hays, Abraham Mendes among others.

These traders send their ships to Africa loaded with alcohol selling it cheap to tribal leaders to intoxicate them in order to help them hunt and capture as slaves members of other tribes preferably young and women. They chuckled the slaves and drove them through the jungles to the coast, where they load them onto the ships on top of each other like cattle immersed in their excrements with little food and water to endure the long voyage back to the American colonies to be auctioned out.

Many of these slaves did not survive the trip and died out of exhaustion, hunger, sickness and torture. It was estimated that nine out of ten had died. Reports of the 1764 Chamber of Commerce of the “Rhode Island Colony” estimated the number of captured slaves was one million a year. During 113 years between 1661 to 1774 a conservative number of 110 million African natives were snatched out of their homeland away from their own families. Only about 10%, or eleven million, of them reached the Colonies alive. The rest, about 99 million perished on the way.

To become more informed of this holocaust one can refer to “The Secret Relationships between Blacks and Jews” by J. & L. T. Levin, “The Jewish Onslaught” book by Tony Martin, or to “Who Brought the Slaves to America” by Walter White Jr.  Better yet, one can turn to the official main source; The Carnegie Institute in Washington, D.C. contains public authentic documents entitled “Documents Illustrative of the History of the Slave Trade in America” with sales receipts and letters between Jewish slave ships owners, such as Aaron Lopez, and his ship captains Nathaniel Briggs, David Mill and Abraham All.

The Palestinian Holocaust perpetrated by Zionist Israeli Jews under the watchful eyes of the whole world is still an on-going graduated Holocaust for the last 65 years (history). Religiously racist fundamentalist Jews claim that their racist god had chosen and elevated only the Jews over the rest of the nations and had promised them Palestine as their pure-Jewish state. Israeli Jews are sparing no effort and are using all lethal and devastating weapons to massacre as much Palestinians as they could (also here), evict them from their homes, destroy their cities and raze every trace of their existence, destroy all Christian as well as Muslim religious sites, in order to build their racist Jewish-only state. In their attempt, and since 1947, they had murdered at least 2 million Palestinians, evicted another million out of the country, destroyed and completely razed about 500 towns (400 towns in 1948), violated all the international laws and UN resolutions, and committed international crimes.

Worse than the alleged Nazi crimes, Israeli Jews intentionally and pre-meditatively committed massacres of civilians targeting mainly children (Google: “Palestinian children killed by Israel”) and women in particular. They used napalm and phosphorous bombs to burn whole civilian neighborhoods and their civilian inhabitants. They erected the largest ever open-air concentration camps in Gaza Strip and turned every Palestinian town into isolated prisons surrounded by high cement walls and barbed wires with steel gates and remote electronically-controlled armed watch towers. Israeli army had attacked all the neighboring Arab states; Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon destroying their towns and committing massacres against civilians. Israeli Mossad agents committed terrorist attacks within all the Arab states, and reached even Turkey and Iran. They even hit Arab assets in European and even American cities. Israelis had built hundreds of nuclear bombs and keep threatening regional as well as world peace.

The greatest Holocaust that dwarfs all other holocausts is the physical and cultural American Indian Holocaust; many hundreds of millions of the inhabitants of the whole continent of North America, who were fighting white European terrorism since 1492 in what is known as “500 years war”. I was not very surprised when I discovered that Jews had played a major part in this holocaust. See “Jewish Racism and the Genocide of American Indians”, by Richard Boyden; a Jewish Journalist, and “The American Holocaust; Dare to Compare: Americanizing the Holocaust” a historical research study by Lilian Friedberg a Jewish scholar.

The German Holocaust after WWII (The Unknown Holocaust) is unknown to many and is rarely talked about. After the end of the war 14 million Germans were systematically expelled from their towns, robbed, raped and killed or let die (Alfred-Maurice de Zayas, “A terrible Revenge: The Ethnic Cleansing of the Eastern European Germans, 1944-1950”, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1994). There was also the pre-meditated deliberate murder of at least one million German POW on the hands of the allied forces in freezing open concentration prison camps at Sinzig and Rheinberg, (James Bacque’s “Other Losses”; General Paperbacks, Toronto, Canada, not allowed to enter USA), and (Giles MacDonogh’s “After the Reich: The Brutal History of the Allied Occupation”, New York: Basic Books, 2007).

These are just a few, a drop in the ocean, of the Holocausts perpetrated by the Jews. There are, also, other devastating atrocities that filled the human history. Gideon Polya’s impressive article enumerates many of them. Others include the American unnecessary nuclear bombing of the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki that burned within minutes about 500 thousand Japanese civilians and later caused the death and mutilation of many other thousands. The Allied bombing of the non-military cultural German city of Dresden with phosphorous bombs burned at least 130 thousand German civilians. These two are real “shoahs” burning. There is also Churchill’s Holocaust of 2 million Bengali victims through his 1943 deliberate famine.  Let us not forget the Holocaust of WWII with 66 million victims, and the American Holocausts against countries like Korea, Vietnam, Afghanistan and Iraq just to mention a few.

The realities of all these historical crimes, except the Jewish Holocaust, can be investigated, researched, studied, criticized, and corrected by anyone and by any organization such as historians, students, schools and universities, reporters, and all types of media outlets. Those, who dare to investigate the Jewish Holocaust on the other hand, are ridiculed, criticized, attacked, fined, punished, imprisoned, and persecuted. European countries have laws that criminalize any historian, who publishes a Holocaust historical study that contradicts the Zionist version no matter how scientific the study is. These laws of the alleged democratic countries contradict Article 19 of the UN Human Rights Charter that states: “Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to see, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.”

Criminalizing any study, investigation and denial of the Holocaust aims to cover the ugly facts of close Zionist Nazi cooperation in persecuting European Jews (“No Shame”,  “Min Hameitzar: The Millions That Could Have Been Saved”, and “Holocaust Victims Accuse”) forcing them to immigrate to Palestine, and to cover Zionist terrorist attacks against British troops occupying Palestine and against Palestinian citizens. Research proved that the German Nazi Party was heavily financed by Jewish financiers such as Kuhn Loeb & Company, J. P. Morgan & Company, Samuel & Samuel of London, and Royal Dutch Shell. Hitler had supported Zionism since the Zionist religious pure Jewish God’s chosen ideology resembled Nazi Germany pure Aryan Super race ideology. From 1933 to 1941 German SS and Gestapo were particularly enthusiastic in their support to Zionism, and supported and encouraged Jewish immigration to Palestine (Mark Weber’s “Zionism and the Third Reich”). In cooperation with Zionist leaders they constructed a network of 40 camps and agricultural centers “Labor Camps” to re-educated young Jews with their Jewishness, and to train them militarily and agriculturally in preparation for their new communal Kibbutz life in Palestine. From 1933 -1941 the Nazi/Zionist Transfer Agreement “The Haavara” enabled 60 thousand German Jews to be transferred on German ships to Palestine with all their wealth. In 1941 Jewish terrorist groups in Palestine, such as Lehi or Stern Gang, offered Nazi Germany a political and military alliance and conducted terrorist attacks against British troops in Palestine.

The Jewish Holocaust is the major justification for financing, arming and building the Zionist colonial project of the state of Israel in Palestine. Exposing the Holocaust lie would collapse the Zionist dream of Greater Israel in the Middle East.

 

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Columbus the Jewish “animal” was a sex trafficking raping mass murdering pedophile

Crimes of Columbus the Jewish “Animal” and other Jews and or those who Jews supported or remained silent about!

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“Columbus and his men also used the Taino as sex slaves: it was a common reward for Columbus’ men for him to present them with local women to rape. As he began exporting Taino as slaves to other parts of the world, the sex-slave trade became an important part of the business, as Columbus wrote to a friend in 1500: “A hundred castellanoes (a Spanish coin) are as easily obtained for a woman as for a farm, and it is very general and there are plenty of dealers who go about looking for girls; those from nine to ten (years old) are now in demand.”

“Eventually, life for the Taino became so unbearable that, as Pedro de Cordoba wrote to King Ferdinand in a 1517 letter, “As a result of the sufferings and hard labor they endured, the Indians choose and have chosen suicide. Occasionally a hundred have committed mass suicide. The women, exhausted by labor, have shunned conception and childbirth… Many, when pregnant, have taken something to abort and have aborted. Others after delivery have killed their children with their own hands, so as not to leave them in such oppressive slavery.”

Eventually, Columbus and later his brother Bartholomew Columbus who he left in charge of the island, simply resorted to wiping out the Taino altogether. Prior to Columbus’ arrival, some scholars place the population of Haiti/Hispaniola (now at 16 million) at around 1.5 to 3 million people. By 1496, it was down to 1.1 million, according to a census done by Bartholomew Columbus. By 1516, the indigenous population was 12,000, and according to Las Casas (who were there) by 1542 fewer than 200 natives were alive. By 1555, every single one was dead.” http://www.danielnpaul.com/ChristopherColumbus.html

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“In a delicious irony, the Jewish Communist historian Howard Zinn spent the first part of his classic, Peoples’ History of the United States excoriating the goyim for Christopher Columbus’ atrocities. Turns out Columbus was Jewish.
As the Dearborn Independent explained in 1920, the rapacity of Western imperialism largely can be attributed to Jewish finance in the guise of national interest.”

The Jews’ Indian: Colonialism, Pluralism, and Belonging in America (Rutgers University Press, 2019) is a new book about the history of Jewish encounters with indigenous peoples in the 19th and early 20th century United States and the stories Jews told each other about these encounters. Moving beyond the singular focus on Zionism in discussions of Jews and colonialism, this text argues that we should view Jewish presence in North America, and modern Jewish history in general, as part of a broader global process of colonial expansion.

I spoke to author David S. Koffman, the J. Richard Shiff Chair for the Study of Canadian Jewry and Associate Professor of History at York University in Toronto, about the historical relationship between colonialism, diaspora, and whiteness, and contemporary Jewish discussions about indigeneity in the US and Canada.

Hadas Binyamini: Can you explain the title?

Below Information “Spiritually Connected” to Jewish “animals” and their “friends” like Columbus

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Lots of history about Jewish involvement in the Exploitation Of Indian Land stolen, Indians murdered and raped and resources then channelled into the hands of Jews. I am sharing the “California History”. Dedicated to “Jewish Animal” and hate Indian schmuck Rick Helleman, editor of the KC Jewish Chronicle.

THE major exploiter was a Jew named “Helleman”! 🙂 He “profited” by getting his hands on the “gold” to put in his “Wells Fargo” bank at the expense of the “mass murders” of THOUSANDS OF CALIFORNIA INDIANS!

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Prospectors pan for gold during the California Gold Rush in this illustration circa 1850. Violence against Native Americans reached its peak during the Gold Rush...

California Slaughter: The JEWISH “ANIMAL”/State-Sanctioned Genocide of Native Americans

Helemans relative made sure the “gold mines” stayed in Jewish hands…say BANKERS AND BANKS…SAY “WELLS FARGO!

https://www.henrymakow.com/the_imperialism_of_jewish_capi.html?_ga=2.235558337.1397893800.1512742067-71409718.1512742067

This is what Jews like Heleman financed and then ignored. Say “MASS MURDER” of Indigenous Indians…CALIFORNIA!

To understand California’s “Indian Problem” and the conflicting JEW interpretation of how to handle this problem.

By 1848 – just before gold was discovered in California – somewhere between 70,000 and 100,000 Indians and less than 2,000 white people lived in California. Later that year when gold was discovered, the population mix began a dramatic alteration. By the time California became a state in 1850, California Indians were a minority and a “problem” for the newly-migrated Californians. For the next decade, the “problem” of what to do with California’s Indian population was tackled by the new state government and the people of California, as well as the federal government. But each of these stakeholdersMap of pre-contact California Indian nations had various and conflicting interpretations of how to handle the “Indian problem.”

  1. The State of California wanted to:
    • protect white settlers and miners from Indian attack,
    • protect white property from Indian loss or attack, and
    • regulate Indians as a labor force
  2. California citizens wanted the Indians removed from Northern California as quickly as possible.
  3. The Federal government was bound by its trust responsibility to Indian Nations throughout the United States to maintain some degree of safety and well-being among the Indian People of California.

During its first ten years as a state, California neither recognized Indians as citizens with civil rights, nor did it treat Indians as sovereign people. As soon as the state government was created, the new legislators – those men largely ruled by pro-slavery and pro-southern sentiments – passed a series of legislative acts that legally did the following

  • Legalized Indian slavery by allowing whites to obtain control over Indian children especially through kidnapping, to contract for Indian services, to outlaw Indian vagrancy.
  • Denied Indians equal protection under the law by forbidding Indians to defend themselves in a court of law, describing the only type of life acceptable via Euro-American customs, allowing the courts to contract Indians out as servants.
  • Pomoted vigilante justice by empowering and funding militias.

Examples of such Legislation:

  • In 1850, California’s first legislature passed the Act for the Government and Protection of Indians – which wrote the following into law.
    • Indians could not testify against whites.
    • Landowners could not permit Indians who were peaceably residing on their land to continue to do so.
    • Whites would be able to obtain control over Indian children.
    • If any Indian ws convicted of a crime, any white person could come before the court and contract for the Indian’s service.
    • It was illegal to sell or administer alcohol to Indians.
    • Indians convicted of stealing a horse, mule, cow, or any other valuable could receive any number of lashes not to exceed 25, and fines not to exceed $200.
    • Any Indian found strolling, loitering where alchohol was sold, begging, or leading a “profligate course of life” would be liable to arrest.
  • California passed a law in 1854 “making it a crime to disinter, mutilate or remove the body of any deceased person” – but Indian bodies were understood to be exempt from the law. This begins a period of Indian grave robbing that does not end until federal legislation is passed in the late 20th Century that specifically makes this practice illegal.
  • In 1860, California passed an amendment to the Act for the Government and Protection of Indians [Approved April 18, 1860.] In essence, this amendment declared that Indians who were not already indentured/enslaved could be kidnapped.

What were the goals of such legislation?

  1. Promote Indian slavery. Californians interpreted the 1850 law in such a way that all Indians, including children, faced indentured servitude through a simple procedure of arrest and “hiring out” through any local justice-of-the-peace. Once they were indentured, the term limitation was almost always ignored, thus resulting in slavery.
    • The result was a profitable slave trade in Indian men, women, and children throughout Northern California. Children were readily bought and sold, for household work; and women were purchased for both household work and sexual liaisons.
    • Another practice occurred when officials picked up Indians as vagrants. These officials would then turn the Indians over to the ranchers and other people who needed laborers. After four months, the employer would return the Indians to the city, usually to a place where alcohol was served. Shortly after their return, the Indians would be picked up once again as vagrants, and returned to the labor force.
    • In 1860, the Act was amended to allow for any Indian not already indentured to be kidnapped.
  2. Deny Indians equal protection under the law by forbidding Indians to defend themselves in a court of law, describing the only type of life acceptable via Euro-American customs, allowing the courts to contract Indians out as servants.
    • Under the 1850 Act, article 6 states that “in no case shall a white man be convicted of any offence upon the testimony of an Indian.” This clearly is denial of equal protection – the belief that Indians did not deserve equal protection under the law in the land they had occupied for generations, or justice in the case of murder or abuse.
    • Enslaving Indians and denying them equal protection became illegal in 1866, when, to comply with the 14th Amendment of the United States Constitution, the State Legislature repealed the law.
    • The 14th Amendment provides that no state should infringe on any citizen’s “privileges or immunities” nor “deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law,” nor deny to any person “the equal protection of the law.”
    • But all this did was remove the legal barriers. Persons who were already enslaved were not immediately released, nor was the law adequately enforced until the end of the century.
    • It was not until 1872 that the California Constitution was amended to allow Indians to testify in courts of law.
  3. Pomote vigilante justice by empowering and funding militias. In 1850 with the first California constitution, Article VII gave the Governor the power “to call for the militia, to execute the laws of the State, to suppress insurrections, and repel invasions.” In his annual address to the California Legislature on Jan. 7, 1851, Governor Burnett highlighted significant events of 1850, including “repeated calls … upon the Executive for the aid of the militia to resist and punish the attacks of the Indians upon the frontier.” During 1850, Governor Burnett called out the militia two times. Additionally …
    • In April 1850, the California Legislature enacted two laws: An Act concerning Volunteer or Independent Companies, and An Act concerning the organization of the Militia.
      • The Volunteer Act provided that citizens of any one county could: organize into a volunteer or independent company; arm and equip themselves in the same manner as the army of the United States; prepare muster rolls (attendance records) twice a year; and render prompt assistance and full obedience when summoned or commanded under the law. This is a copy of discharge papers from one of the Trinity Rangers.
      • The lengthy Militia Act established that all “free, white, able-bodied male citizens, between the ages of eighteen and forty-five years, residing in [the] State” were subject to state-mandated military duty.
    • In 1851, the legislature set the rates of pay for the troops – $1,100,000 for the “suppression” of Indian hostilities.
    • In 1857, the Legislature issued bonds for $410,000 for the same purpose.
    • Both of the 1850 acts were repealed and replaced in 1855 and amended in 1856 and 1857 – but neither repealed the militia nor the money provided to militias. In 1866, the National Guard replaced militias in this capacity.

Studies conducted in the late 20th Century of the California archives found that while it was impossible to determine exactly the total number of units and men engaged in militia attacks against the California Indians during the period of 1850 to 1859, the official record verifies that the governors of California called out the militia on “Expeditions against the Indians” on a number of occasions, and at considerable expense – $843,573.48. (Comptroller of the State of California, Expenditures for Military Expeditions Against Indians, 1851-1859, Sacramento: The Comptroller, Secretary of State, California State Archives, Located at “Roster” Comptroller No. 574, Vault, Bin 393.)


Goal #5: To chronologically examine the massacre at Indian Island in Eureka, California on February 16, 1860

Indian Island PhotographPre-Contact.  About 1500-2000 Wiyot people lived in their ancestral territory that included the current tows of McKinleyville, Blue Lake, Arcata, Eureka, Kneeland, Loleta, Fortuna, Ferndale, and Rohnerville.  Indian Island was and remains the center of the Wiyot People’s world.  It is home to the ancient village of Tuluwat and the traditional site of the World Renewal Ceremony held annually to welcome the new year.  The ceremony lasted between 7-10 days and began with the men leaving the island and returning the next day with the needed supplies.  The elders, women, and children remained behind. The ground beneath Tuluwat village is an enormous clamshell mound (or midden). This mound, measuring over six acres in size and estimated to be over 1,000 years old, is an irreplaceable physical history of the Wiyot way of life. Contained within it are remains of meals, tools, and ceremonies, as well as many burial sites.

1850.  The town of Eureka was founded by a group of miners who needed a more convenient route to the overland trail from Sacramento the California gold fields.  Shortly thereafter, Humboldt Bay became the busiest port between San Francisco and Portland.  As Eureka’s population and economy grew, its white residents became increasingly uneasy about local Indians whom ranchers blamed for thefts and cattle loss.  Merchants began to see Indian villages that thrived along the Bay as a direct threat to their growing trade.

1860. An army officer at Fort Humboldt observed, “Cold-blooded Indian killing being considered honorable, shooting Indians and murdering even squaws and children that have been domesticated for months and years, without a moment’s warning and with as little compunction as they would rid themselves of a dog.” An editorial in the Humboldt Times opined, “The whites cannot afford horses and cattle for their [Indian] sustenance, and will not. Ergo, unless Government provides for the Indians, the settlers must exterminate them.”

In early February, the Humboldt Volunteer Militia was created, two years after Humboldt citizens sent the following letter to the governor:

“It has now been two months since the Indians in this vicinity started in open hostility to us, though so far they have confined their operations to the trail connecting this County to Weaverville. This being our direct channel of communication with the Sacramento Valley, and a trail over which the United States Mail must pass once a week, it is of the utmost importance that it should be kept open. The Indians on this trail first manifested their hostility to us by shooting a man who was traveling alone. We supposed that a few men would be sufficient to punish the Indians and make them ask for peace, and accordingly, a party was organized, provided for by private means and sent in search of the hostiles. After trailing the Indians for several days, they were attacked from ambush and one man was killed. In the meantime their camp which they had left unguarded was attacked, and ten mules were killed. This party consisted of only twelve men. Subsequently, another party of twenty-five men went out who were provisioned at a heavy private expense. In endeavoring to drive the Indians from the vicinity of the trails, they were fired upon in a deep canyon, and one man was killed, another wounded. The company has now disbanded, not feeling inclined to incur further danger and hardships at their own expense. The trails are now closed, there being no travel over them except by night or in large parties. The question now is what is there to.be done? There are no troops here at the garrison and the people are not able to carry on a war at their own expense. The people of the county are of the opinion that if the militia could be called out, and arms furnished, the merchants would feel encouraged to furnish supplies, and wait for the State to pay. We can furnish the men if they can only be supplied.”

On February 16, The Indian Island Massacre occured. A group of white settlers armed with hatchets, clubs, and knives paddled to Indian Island where Wiyot men, women, and children were sleeping after a week of ceremonial dancing.  Two other villages were raided on the same night – one on the Eel River and another on the South Spit.  Somewhere between 80-100 people were killed on Indian Island.  A baby, Jerry James, was the only infant that survived the massacre on the Island.  Another 200-600 Wiyot were massacred in the other raids.

Journalist Bret Harte published a front-page editorial in The Northern Californian in which he expresses horror over the massacre. Subsequently, he was run out of the county and moved to San Francisco.

After 1860.  An estimated 200 Wiyot people still lived in the area.  Federal troops collected the surviving Wiyot people from other villages and confined them to the Klamath River Reservation.  After a disastrous flood on the Klamath, the Wiyot were moved to the Smith River Reservation and later to the Hoopa and Round Valley Reservations.

1870.  A shipyard repair facility was built on part of the Island and operated there until the 1980s.  During that time, it dumped creosote, solvents, and other chemicals that were used to maintain ships.

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Jews established “Manifest Destiny Of The Genocide Of Indians Free Masonic Lodges” in the US. http://www.shamash.org/lists/scj-faq/HTML/faq/16-03.html

They represent their god who they call “Lucifer”.

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The first whiskey distilleries started in America were established in Newport by a Jew named Nicholas Lowe. Whiskey was a “Jewish tool” to take advantage of Indians in “commerce”. (They did the same through a Nebraska State town called White Clay!)

The Iroquois also traded for alcohol, which the Europeans introduced. Eventually, this would have a very negative influence on their society, as they suffered a high rate of alcoholism. By 1753 Scarrooyady, a chief, petitioned the Governor of Pennsylvania to intervene in trade:

“Your Traders now bring scarce anything but Rum and Flour; they bring little powder and lead, or other valuable goods . . . and get all the skins that should go to pay the debts we have contracted for goods bought of the Fair Traders; by this means we not only ruin ourselves but them too. These wicked Whiskey Sellers, when they have once got the Indians in liquor, make them sell their very clothes from their backs.

“Genocide does not necessarily mean the immediate destruction of a nation, except when accomplished by mass killings of all members of a nation. It is intended rather to signify a coordinated plan of different actions aiming at the destruction of essential foundations of the life of national groups, with the aim of annihilating the groups themselves. The objectives of such a plan would be disintegration of the political and social institutions, of culture, language, national feelings, religion, and the economic existence of national groups, and the destruction of personal security, liberty, health, dignity, and even the lives of the individuals belonging to such groups.”

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Jews and Small Pox Blankets

Jew Andrew Levy participated in the extermination plot against the Indians by providing them with blankets laced with smallpox.

He is listed as a resident of Lancaster, Pennsylvania with “two female slaves and one house.” Levy once had a slave “who preferred freedom with the Indians to servitude under Levy. The slave ran off with a local tribe.”

British General Jeffrey Amherst’s pathological hatred for the Indian knew no limits – co-existence was not an option. In a postscript of a 1763 letter to Col. Henry Bouquet, Amherst wrote: “Could it not be contrived to send the smallpox among these disaffected tribes of Indians? We must on this occasion use every stratagem in our power to reduce them.”

Rabbi Sharfman explains the events that followed and the involvement of the Jewish Indian traders: “Captain Ecuyer then called upon Levy Andrew [Levy] at his trading post. He told how he tricked the chief into accepting the deadly gifts and placed an order to replace the blankets and handkerchiefs. This grim invoice accompanied the new goods, receipt of which was duly acknowledged by Ecuyer: Debtor: The Crown to Levy, Trent & Co., for sundries had by order of Captain Simeon Ecuyer, Commandant…to sundries, got to replace in kind those which were taken from the people in the hospital to convey the smallpox to the Indians, viz., 2 blankets @ 2.00. 1 silk handkerchief @ .10. 1 linen do. 3.6 Total: 2.13.6 Fort Pitt, August 15, 1763 I do hereby certify that the above articles…were had for the uses above-mentioned. S. Ecuyer, Captain, Commandant” Seventy Shawnee, Mingo, and Delaware, fell before the unseen enemy, smallpox. Many more undoubtably died, for the Indians had no resistance to the white man’s diseases.

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 The Little Jew Was There…Sigmund Shlesinger!

Shlesinger, in September 1868, when a lad of nineteen years old, entered the contest against the red men. 

Monday, September I868 “Scalpt 3 Indians which were found about 15 Feet from my hole consealt in Grass.” 

“The way the bounties worked, generally speaking, was that you’d be paid a certain rate for the scalp of an adult male Indian, half that rate for the scalp of an adult female, and half that for the scalp of a child of either sex. A child was usually defined as an Indian under 10 years of age, including fetuses.

Around 1700, Massachusetts Colony was paying £100 Sterling for the scalp of an adult male, and that was four times the annual income of an average farmer. So you end up with farmers shooting random Indians whenever they happen to pass by. And you also end up with a whole milieu of professional scalp hunters.

The record is absolutely riddled with this sort of thing: John Sullivan’s troops returning from their 1779 campaign against the Senecas wearing Indian-skin leggings.

Redskins vs Nazi Swastika

Stop the Mascots and Sterotypes of Native Peoples

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https://richardboydenreport.wordpress.com/2017/07/10/kike-owner-of-team-of-niggers-and-their-kike-attorney-like-ruling-on-redskins-trademark/

https://richardboydenreport.wordpress.com/2017/02/21/black-buffalo-soldiers-write-and-sing-song-glorifying-the-mass-murder-of-redskins-at-wounded-knee/

https://richardboydenreport.wordpress.com/2015/12/23/why-the-washington-redskins-should-be-called-the-washington-niggers/

As for how the United States Military profiled American Indians, this statement made by a member of wrote, ” every redskin must be killed from off the fact of the plains before we can be free from their molestations. They are of no earthly good and the sooner they are swept from the land the better for civilization. I do not think they can be turned aside and made good law abiding citizens any more then coyotes can be used for shepherd dogs” Quote from Major John Vance Lauderdale, US Army surgeon attending physician at the Wounded Knee Massacre.

Other historical commentaries using the name of this professional and revered football team housed in the city President Obama resides in include,  “Hunting redskins became for the time being a popular sport in New England, especially since prisoners were worth good money, and the personal danger to the hunters was now very slight” From Douglas Leach, Flintlock and Tomahawk: New England in King Philps War (W.W. Norton & Co. 1958.

This example of historical understanding of the use of the word “redskin”  is clear and concise when “defining” the word in it’s real life application. ”Others say it was first used on signs at Dutch Trading Posts that listed the “skins” they bought. Among them beaver skins – and redskins. On the Northeast coast, the U.S. Government put a bounty on American Indians’ heads. People had to prove they killed an American Indian in order to get the bounty. How did they prove it? At first they would bring in a head but that got to cumbersome so it simply became the scalps. The prices paid for scalps were different depending on whether they were taken from a male or a female and whether they were taken from an adult or a child. Adult females brought the most money because they could produce American Indian offspring. How did they prove the sex of the person the scalp once belonged to? For women they would cut off the breasts and present them with scalps. For children’s scalps it was often the feet that were cut off.” From the Cincinnati Zapatista Coalition, American Indian Mascot Page.

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Photo – Invasion forces of the Great Sioux Nation: 10th Cavalry H troop K company
at Pine Ridge, South Dakota 1890-91.

HISTORY HIDDEN! The 10th Coulored Calvary was wiped out by the Oglala on Pine Ridge! 🙂

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Murdering racist Nigger Buffalo Soldiers who raped and murdered Lakota, Dakota and Nakota women and girls! Just like they did to any and all “Redskins” they had contact with being the feral black beasts there were then as “field niggers” for their Masters!

(Stationed at Pine Ridge Agency: Brigadier General John R. Brooke and Companies F, I and K of the 9th (Coloured) Cavalry and 1 Hotchkiss breech loading 2 pounder cannon (which fired like a Gatling gun.

Stationed at Rosebud Agency: Lieutenant Colonel A. T. Smith Companies A and G of the 9th (Coloured) Cavalry, 1 Hotchkiss breech loading 2 pounder cannon. Troopers from the 9th and 7th Cavalry dispatched to retrieve Chief Big Foot and his people.

The Hotchkiss Gun was a five barrel revolving cannon. It was manufactured in 37mm; 40mm; 47mm and 57mm versions. It used explosive shells and had a rate of fire of 80 rounds per minute. The Hotchkiss Guns used at Wounded Knee were the: Hotchkiss Breech-loading Steel Mountain Rifle, caliber 1.65 inches {40mm}; length of bore, 24.72 calibers; weight of tube, 116.6 pounds; weight of carriage, 220 pounds; weight of exploding cartridge, 2 pounds 10 ounces; effective range, 4,200 yards. Personally, I feel the reason why only 150 some slaughtered Lakota children, women, and men were buried at Wounded Knee is because of the fact ONLY that many bodies were intact enough TO BURY!)

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The United States Military profiled American Indians found in this statement made by a member of wrote, ” every REDSKIN must be killed from off the fact of the plains before we can be free from their molestations. They are of no earthly good and the sooner they are swept from the land the better for civilization. I do not think they can be turned aside and made good law abiding citizens any more then coyotes can be used for shepherd dogs” Quote from Major John Vance Lauderdale, US Army surgeon attending physician at the Wounded Knee Massacre.

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The below song was written by African Buffalo NIGGER Soldier who glorified the Mass Murder of over 300 innocent Lakota/Dakota men, women, and children at Wounded Knee on December 29th 1890 who they called “REDSKINS”!.

This was right after Mr. Wizard Of Oz L. Frank Baum called for the extermination of the “Redskins”! Jews all over the world LOVE the Wizard of Oz!

A GHOST-DANCE BALLAD

THE INDIAN GHOST DANCE AND WAR

The Red Skins left their Agency, the Soldiers left their Post,
All on the strength of an Indian tale about Messiah’s ghost
Got up by savage chieftains to lead their tribes astray;
But Uncle Sam wouldn’t have it so, for he ain’t built that way.
They swore that this Messiah came to them in visions sleep,
And promised to restore their game and Buffalos a heap,
So they must start a big ghost dance, then all would join their band,
And may be so we lead the way into the great Bad Land.

Chorus:

They claimed the shirt Messiah gave, no bullet could go through,
But when the Soldiers fired at them they saw this was not true.
The Medicine man supplied them with their great Messiah’s grace,
And he, too, pulled his freight and swore the 7th hard to fnce.

About their tents the Soldiers stood, awaiting one and all,
That they might hear the trumpet clear when sounding General call
Or Boots and Saddles in a rush, that each and every man
Might mount in haste, ride soon and fast to stop this devilish band
But Generals great like Miles and Brooke don’t do things up that way,
For they know an Indian like a book, and let him have his sway
Until they think him far enough and then to John they’ll say,
“You had better stop your fooling or we’ll bring our guns to play.”

Chorus: They claimed the shirt, etc.

The 9th marched out with splendid cheer the Bad Lands to explo’e–
With Col. Henry at their head they never fear the foe;
So on they rode from Xmas eve ’till dawn of Xmas day ;
The Red Skins heard the 9th was near and fled in great dismay;
The 7th is of courage bold both officers and men,
But bad luck seems to follow them and twice has took them in;
They came in contact with Big Foot’s warriors in their fierce might
This chief made sure he had a chance of vantage in the fight.

Chorus: They claimed the shirt, etc.

A fight took place, ’twas hand to hand, unwarned by trumpet
While the Sioux were dropping man by man–the 7th killed them all,
And to that regiment be said “Ye noble braves, well done,
Although you lost some gallant men a glorious fight you’ve won.”
The 8th was there, the sixth rode miles to swell that great command
And waited orders night and day to round up Short Bull’s band.
The Infantry marched up in mass the Cavalry’s support,
And while the latter rounded up, the former held the fort.

Chorus: They claimed the shirt, etc.

E battery of the 1st stood by and did their duty well,
For every time the Hotchkiss barked they say a hostile fell.
Some Indian soldiers chipped in too and helped to quell the fray,
And now the campaign’s ended and the soldiers marched away.
So all have done their share, you see, whether it was thick or thin,
And all helped break the ghost dance up and drive the hostiles in.
The settlers in that region now can breathe with better grace;
They only ask and pray to God to make John hold his base.

Chorus: They claimed the shirt, etc.

(W. H. Prather, I, 9th Cavalry).

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This Propaganda Movie hiding the truth about the Buffalo “Nigger” Soldiers starring the NIGGER Danny Glover was directed by Kike Charles Haid https://www.opensubtitles.org/en/search/sublanguageid-all/idmovie-44041

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William Henry Harrison’s men skinning Tecumseh to make “souvenirs” after they killed him at Tippecanoe in 1811.

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President Andrew Jackson commissioned United States troops “…to root out from their ‘dens’ and kill Indian women and their ‘whelps’” (Stannard, p. 240).

Jackson was so effective at rooting women and “whelps” from their “dens,” he adopted the habit of cutting off his victims’ noses as trophies to commemorate his exploits. He earned the name “Sharp Knife” from Creek Indians for his penchant for skinning victims and using the cured and braided tissue as reins for his ponies (Takaki, 1994).

Andrew Jackson’s cutting off the noses of the dead at Horseshoe Bend. https://indiancountrymedianetwork.com/history/people/indian-killer-andrew-jackson-deserves-top-spot-on-list-of-worst-us-presidents/

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A Freemason raping murdering killing and mutilating “REDSKINS”!

“As he aimed his howitzers on an encampment of unarmed Indians at Sand Creek, Colorado, in 1864, an army colonel named John Chivington, who had once said that thelives of Indian children should not be spared because “nits make lice,” told his officers: “I have come to kill Indians, and believe it is right and honorable to use any means under God’s heaven to kill Indians.” Hundreds of Indian women, children, and old men were slaughtered in the Sand Creek massacre.

One officer who was present said later, “Women and children were killed and scalped, children shot at their mother’s breasts, and all the bodies mutilated in the most horrible manner. The dead bodies of females were profaned in such a manner that the recital is sickening.

The troopers cut off the vulvas of Indian women, stretched them over their saddle horns, then decorated their hatbands with them; some used the skin of brave’s scrotums and the breasts of Indian women as tobacco pouches, then showed off these trophies, together with the noses and ears of some of the Indians they had massacred, at the Denver Opera House.

Chivington’s volunteers returning to Denver from Sand Creek with female genitalia stretched over their hats in 1864.  The bounty on Indian scalps in Minnesota was $200 in 1863.167 In Texas, a bounty was first offered by the Spanish, then continued by Mexico, then continued by first the Republic, then the State of Texas, and not discontinued until the 1880s, when the legislature determined that there were no longer enough Indians left to warrant its continuation. In California, private citizens continued the bounty even after the state legislature repealed it.”

http://sdonline.org/33/an-american-holocaust-the-structure-of-denial/

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Jews love the Wizard Of Oz!!!!!

L. Frank Baum called for the extermination of the “Redskins”. His “Kaballa  theism” was directly connected to Madam Blavatsky who stated “Lucifer is god” along with her “cousins” the Freemasons in in particular Albert Pike. http://www.lermanet.com/rainbow-swaztika/naI.htm

His “spiritualism” also included the understanding of Jews “advocated a “Final Goal” of “cleaning out the Jews once and for all”. https://philologos.org/__eb-trs/naF.htm

This is Baum’s occult Jewish Cabala roots as found in the “Wizard of Oz” https://vigilantcitizen.com/moviesandtv/the-occult-roots-of-the-wizard-of-oz/2/

From his Sitting Bull editorial:

The proud spirit of the original owners of these vast prairies inherited through centuries of fierce and bloody wars for their possession, lingered last in the bosom of Sitting Bull. With his fall the nobility of the Redskin is extinguished, and what few are left are a pack of whining curs who lick the hand that smites them. The Whites, by law of conquest, by justice of civilization, are masters of the American continent, and the best safety of the frontier settlements will be secured by the total annihilation of the few remaining Indians. Why not annihilation? Their glory has fled, their spirit broken, their manhood effaced; better that they die than live the miserable wretches that they are.

On January 3, 1891 (after the Wounded Knee massacre) “The Aberdeen Saturday Pioneer” published another editorial:

“The peculiar policy of the government in employing so weak and vacillating a person as General Miles to look after the uneasy Indians, has resulted in a terrible loss of blood to our soldiers, and a battle which, at best, is a disgrace to the war department. There has been plenty of time for prompt and decisive measures, the employment of which would have prevented this disaster.”The PIONEER has before declared that our only safety depends upon the total extermination [sic] of the Indians. Having wronged them for centuries we had better, in order to protect our civilization, follow it up by one more wrong and wipe these untamed and untamable creatures from the face of the earth. In this lies safety for our settlers and the soldiers who are under incompetent commands. Otherwise, we may expect future years to be as full of trouble with the redskins as those have been in the past

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Perhaps the most notable encounter between the Apaches and their pursuers occurred in Hudspeth County on October 28, 1880, just two weeks after Victorio’s death, when the Apaches killed seven “Buffalo Soldiers,” members of the famous black Tenth United States Cavalry.

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Geronimo and his people removed to a concentration camp in Florida. His skull was stolen by Prescott Bush and is a part of the “Skull and Bones” ceremony at Yale!

Native American Genocide

FORCED REMOVAL

The “Indian Removal” policy was implemented to “clear” land for white settlers. Removal was more than another assault on American Indians’ land titles. Insatiable greed for land remained a primary consideration, but many people now believed that the removal was the only way of saving American Indians from extermination. As long as the American Indians lived in close proximity to non-Native American communities, they would be decimated by disease, alcohol, and poverty. The Indian Removal Act began in 1830. Forced marches at bayonet-point to relocation settlements resulted in high mortality rates. The infamous removal of the Five Civilized Tribes — the Choctaws, Creeks, Chickasaws, Cherokees, and Seminoles — is a dismal page in United States history. By the 1820’s the Cherokees, who had established a written constitution modeled after the United States Constitution, a newspaper, schools, and industries in their settlements, resisted removal. In 1938 the federal troops evicted the Cherokees. Approximately four thousand Cherokees died during the removal process because of poor planning by the United States Government. This exodus to Indian Territory is known as the Trail of Tears. More than one hundred thousand American Indians eventually crossed the Mississippi River under the authority of the Indian Removal Act.

Jews were the first to run to the Paha Sapa…BLACK HILLS to partake of the THEFT OF THE GOLD! This was land that was the home of the Great Sioux Nation per 1868 Ft. Laramie Treaty… but the JEWS did what they do best…steal and lie!

Franklin and Baer were foremost among businessmen, many of them Jewish, who during four decades transformed Deadwood from a rowdy and dangerous frontier outpost into a modern American city.  In his book, “Deadwood:  The Gold Years,” author Watson Parker observed:  “If the gold brought money, the merchants brought stability….The miners brought in money, and spent it, and called for goods and culture;  the merchants and businessmen mined the miners, and seem to have made the better thing of it.”

Jewish Pioneers of the Black Hills Gold Rush

The setting is the lawless Dakota Territory of 1876 at the start of the Black Hills gold rush, a stampede for the golden pay dirt. One would hardly expect to find a Jewish pioneer grocer named Jacob Goldberg in this scene, yet Deadwood’s story is incomplete without Goldberg. And Goldberg’s story is incomplete without either Calamity Jane or Wild Bill. Not just Goldberg, but Finkelstein (also known as Franklin), Stern (also known as Star), Jacobs, Schwarzwald, Colman, Hattenbach, and many other Jews joined the throngs. The Jews provided much more than overalls, chamberpots, and the chambers in which to put them. They also became the mayors, legislators, and civic leaders who helped bring sense and stability to this unruly area.

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http://thegipster.blogspot.com/2014/06/the-elite-are-abducting-and-murdering-u.html

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https://twitter.com/bullmeechum3/status/1032402802402721793

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The American Holocaust Versus The Jewish Holocaust

The American Holocaust Versus The Jewish Holocaust

“The American Holocaust” Of Indigenous People

Dare to Compare: Americanizing the Holocaust by LILLIAN FREEBERG

“For several centuries now, men of the White and JEWISH race have everywhere destroyed the past, stupidly, blindly, and deliberately both at home and abroad. The past once destroyed never returns. The destruction of the past is perhaps the greatest of all crimes. Today the preservation of what little of it remains ought to become almost an obsession. We must put an end to the terrible uprootedness which European colonial methods always produce, even uder their least cruel aspects. We must abstain, once victory ours, from punishing the conquered enemy by uprooting him still further: seeing that it is neither possible nor desirable to exterminate him.”
Simone Weil, The Need for Roots: Prelude to a Declaration of Duties Towards Mankind
The Dynamics of Denial: Uncle Sam’s Willing Executioners

German-speaking Jewish writers have long felt comfortable expropriating images and analogies from the site of Native American identity in their literary imagination. 1 Today, a growing sentiment of sympathy for the “vanishing American” in Germany has upped the ante in the identity-appropriations game, and German-speaking Jewish writers now appropriate Native American identity in the attempt to inflect their own historiography with an added degree of moral currency on the landscape of a contemporary Germany still caught in the throes of denial concerning its own genocidal past.

In German-speaking literary circles, the examples of Else Lasker-Schüler, who stylized herself as an American Indian, and Franz Kafka’s wish to be a “Red Indian” are well known. George Tabori’s 1990 stage production of the Jewish Western Weisman und Rotgesicht wittily pitted [Jewish] white man against [partly Jewish] red man in a verbal duel in which the protagonists exchange a hilarious blow-for-blow account of injuries and insults suffered by the victimized [End Page 353] populations they represent. But the phenomenon of conflating Jewish and “Indian” identity is not unique to foreign-language publications. As Seth Wolitz points out, in his discussion of Weisman und Rotgesicht, this “tradition of spoofing Jewish-Indian interrelations . . . reaches back to a Yiddish playlet, Tsvishn Indianer.” 2 This 1895 play, “Among the Indians, or The Country Peddler,” as its translator states, “is not an anomaly, but rather a pathbreaker in a well-defined line of Jewish-American entertainment that leads to the films of Mel Brooks and others.” 3 The American leg of this lineage includes Eddie Cantor’s redface minstrelsy in Whoopie! (1930) and Woody Allen’s Zelig (1983). Fanny Brice sang herself to stardom with “I’m an Indian,” and Bernard Malamud’s The People provides a classic example of the phenomenon.

Most recently perhaps, Raphael Seligmann has gone on record stating that the Jews are “the Indians of Germany.” 4 That this statement begs the question of identifying “Uncle Sam’s willing executioners” seems, however, of minimal concern to the Jewish community in America and abroad. In fact, when the time comes to put the Shoah on the other foot and parallels are drawn between atrocities experienced by the American Indian population over a five-hundred-year period and those experienced by the Jewish population of Europe in the twelve-year reign of Nazi terror, the knowledge of self-described “Jewish Indians” recedes into the recesses of repressed memory. In a seditious reversal of national identity politics, Lucy Dawidowicz charges those who would dare to compare with “a vicious anti-Americanism.” 5 Rabbi Irving Greenberg, founder of the Holocaust Resource Center and first director of the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Commission, has described the comparison of the Nazi Holocaust with other acts of genocide as “blasphemous.” 6 In The Holocaust in American Life, Jewish historian Peter Novik describes the way in which any attempt to compare is dismissed as a “felonious assault” on truth and memory. 7

In the pathological dynamic of genocidal histories, the perpetrator culture invariably turns its gaze to the horrors registered in the archives and accounts of the “other guys.” 8 This is why Holocaust studies in the United States focus almost exclusively on the atrocity of Auschwitz, not of Wounded Knee or Sand Creek. Norman Finkelstein, in his discussion of the way images of the Holocaust have been manufactured to reap moral and economic benefits for members of the Jewish elite, states that the presence of the Holocaust Museum in Washington is “particularly incongruous in the absence of a museum commemorating crimes in the course of American history” and makes specific reference to the slave trade and genocide against the American Indians. 9 Peter Novik suggests that the Holocaust has become a sort of “civil religion” for American Jews who have lost touch with their own ethnic and religious identity, and asserts that “in the United States the Holocaust is explicitly used for the purpose of national self-congratulation: the Americanization of the Holocaust [End Page 354] has involved using it to demonstrate the difference between the Old World and the New, and to celebrate, by showing its negation, the American way of life.” 10

The Historikerstreit or “Historians’ Debate” in Germany during the mid-1980s disrupted the traditional historiographical narrative, which placed three groups of actors at the scene of the Nazi crime–perpetrators, bystanders, and victims. Saul Friedländer summarizes the controversy as “a debate about the shape of the past in terms of public memory and national identity.” 11 Conservative historians, in their efforts to “historicize” the Nazi period and thus suture the wound of discontinuity presented by a “past that refused to go away,” attempted to relativize the crimes of the Nazi period by situating them in the context of a narrative that included an amalgamated fourth character in the plot: the Soviet and American forces who forced Germans into a victim position from which only further victimization could ensue. These abnegationist attempts at historical revision were staunchly contested by left-wing social philosopher Jürgen Habermas in a series of essays that have since been collected and published in German and in English. 12

The Historians’ Debate directed international attention to the issue of historical liability as it relates to public memory and national identity in territories known to have been host to genocidal campaigns. However, what got lost in translation when the debate migrated to America was the very real opportunity this controversy might have presented for an authentic “working through” or “mastery” of this country’s traumatic genocidal past. Instead, the dispute conveniently constructed a site of transference upon which the melancholic drama of “manifest manners” could be acted out. 13 American intellectuals, confronted with the quandary of whether to see or not to see, chose to look the other way. George Tabori, in “Hamlet in Blue,” provides an apt metaphor for this dynamic of denial: “the old Hamletian ploy of dodging action by mind-fucking.” 14 As Henryk Broder points out in “Die Germanisierung des Holocaust,” today one speaks of the “Americanization of the Holocaust” as though the Jews were slaughtered on American soil. 15 This, in turn, cultivates fertile breeding ground for absolutionist scholarship and public discourse on both sides of the Atlantic. In the end, only the interests of the respective aggressor cultures are served.

The same kinds of arguments attempting to “historicize” America’s past in the interest of “normalizing” its present from the perspective of the perpetrator population do not unleash the same scandalous international controversy as do similar efforts on the part of historians negotiating a revision of German history. The genocide against the Jews is considered an ugly chapter in Germany’s past and acknowledged internationally as one of the gravest crimes against humanity in the twentieth century. But while the whole fabric of German culture remains “under the shadow of Hitler,” the genocide against indigenous [End Page 355] populations in North America is still today denied or dismissed as the inevitable prelude to the rise of the greatest nation on Earth.

Reactionary historian James Axtell, in his 1992 study, Beyond 1492: Encounters in Colonial North America, writes:
We make a hash of our historical judgments because we continue to feel guilty about the real or imagined sins of our fathers and forefathers . . . [We] can stop flogging ourselves with our “imperialistic” origins and tarring ourselves with the broad brush of “genocide.” As a huge nation of law and order and increasingly refined sensibility, we are not guilty of murdering Indian women and babies, of branding slaves on the forehead, or of claiming any real estate in the world we happen to fancy. 16

Statements like this, when proffered in defense of Germany’s genocidal history, elicit vehement opposition from the academic and intellectual community, yet, with regard to America’s tragic past, go virtually unchallenged and are integrated into the canon of acceptable discourse.

As the success of Daniel Jonah Goldhagen’s indictment of the German people in Hitler’s Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust illustrates, public flogging of the German people for their willing participation in the melee represents an acceptable and indeed lucrative form of public and academic discourse. The 1996 publication of Goldhagen’s Ph.D. dissertation thrust the previously little-known Harvard professor into the international limelight. His thesis, that widespread “eliminationist anti-Semitism” among the ordinary men and women of Germany, not the ruthless racial policies of the Nazi regime, was the sole cause of the extermination of the Jews, has been contested by Holocaust scholars and historians the world over. But the book, translated into thirteen languages, became an international bestseller and secured for Goldhagen the prestigious German Democracy Prize in 1997. It also unleashed an international debate that has been dubbed “The Goldhagen Wars,” not to mention a series of highly paid speaking engagements for its author throughout the world. Goldhagen’s staunchest opponent has been Norman Finkelstein, the Jewish scholar whose rebuttal of “the Goldhagen thesis” first appeared in The New Left Review (July/August 1997) under the title “Daniel Goldhagen’s ‘Crazy’ Thesis.” 17 In a statement printed by the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette on 21 April 1998, Goldhagen proudly asserts: “My book has sold more copies in Germany than anywhere else. It’s been embraced by the German people.” It is interesting to note, in this context, that Native American scholar Ward Churchill’s stellar and seminal piece of scholarship on Holocaust and denial in the Americas, A Little Matter of Genocide, did not meet with the same degree of public success. [End Page 356]

Taking the American people to task in the little matter of genocide against indigenous populations of North America remains a terrible taboo registered in the “Don’t you Dare” category of “Academic Do’s and Don’ts.” Like any taboo, this act of transgression does not derive from a vacuum but rather emanates from a specific social consciousness–or lack thereof. As journalist William Greider notes in One World, Ready or Not: The Manic Logic of Global Capitalism:

German social consciousness was anchored in the country’s tragic knowledge of guilt and defeat, a humbling encounter with self-doubt that Americans have so far evaded in their national history. . . . American history did provide ample basis for humility and social introspection: slavery and the enduring wounds of race, “winning” the West by armed conquest, Hiroshima and the nuclear potential for mass destruction, the bloody failure of the neocolonialist war in Vietnam. . . . The social meaning of these experiences was usually deflected, however, and repackaged by the optimistic American culture as stories of triumph. . . . Thus, Americans generally managed to evade any national sense of guilt or defeat. Critical reflection on the national character was discouraged, ridiculed as “un-American.” 18

Dominick LaCapra has established a clear relationship between the implications of the Historians’ Debate for American scholars and objections raised by German scholars on the left-wing side of the skirmish. He states that liberal historians may have had strategic as well as more deep-seated philosophical reasons for not placing too much emphasis on the ambivalence of Western traditions and the possibly dubious role of a critique of revisionism in lessening awareness of the implication of other Western countries in massively destructive or even genocidal processes. Given the history of the United States, this danger is clear and present for an American, and identification with Habermas’s position may be facilitated by the narcissistic and self-justificatory gains it brings. 19

But even before the Historians’ Debate, the relative singularity of the Nazi Holocaust had long been the center of international debate. Uniqueness proponents such as Deborah Lipstadt, Steven Katz, Saul Friedländer, Michael Marrus, Yehuda Bauer, Lucy Dawidowicz, and others share an insistence on the exclusivity of the Nazi Holocaust as an unparalleled event in the history of the twentieth century. This view has been challenged by survivors and scholars, among them a number of Jewish intellectuals such as Hannah Arendt, Irving Louis Horowitz, Israel Charny, Helen Fein, Simon Wiesenthal, Norman Finkelstein, Peter Novik, and others. Increasingly, Native American scholars and their allies have entered the conversation, pointing out that the historical [End Page 357] archive of the American Holocaust has been compiled, collated, and indeed constructed to a large degree by perpetrators, their descendants, and beneficiaries writing from a subject position inflected with a vested interest in maintaining the illusion of innocence concerning the “facts of the case.”

The exclusivists’ most compelling argument against the comparability of the two acts of genocide has been that the decimation of the American Indian population, unlike the extermination of the Jews, was unintentional–“caused by microbes, not militia . . . that is, this depopulation happened unwittingly rather than by design.” 20 Preeminent uniqueness proponent Steven Katz, in The Holocaust in Historical Context, while documenting the fact that the American Holocaust far exceeded the Nazi Holocaust in scope, at the same time reduces the American travesty to a mere case of “depopulation.” 21

These conclusions are drawn from comparisons not of a simple corpse count but rather of the rate of extermination experienced by each group. Recent studies demonstrate that precontact population estimates generated by historians and demographers from the subject position of the perpetrators have been egregiously low. It is today commonly assumed that precontact populations were far and above the one-million figure that has acted as a standard of measure for centuries. More recent and more honest studies estimate the precontact civilization to have been between nine and eighteen million. This standard of measure puts the rate of attrition of indigenous populations at between 98 and 99 percent–that is, near total extermination. The rate of attrition of Jewish populations in Europe is commonly calculated at between 60 and 65 percent. Put in terms of survival rates, this means that two-thirds of the global Jewish population and about one third of the European Jewish population survived the Nazi Holocaust, whereas a mere remnant population of 1 to 2 percent survived the American Holocaust. This seriously calls into question any notion of “unparalleled” or “total extermination” of the Jews in the Nazi Holocaust.

Katz argues that the Nazi Holocaust is “phenomenologically” unique based on the “merciless, exceptionless, biocentric intentionality of Hitler’s ‘war against the Jews.’” 22 Katz’s argument centers on documented intentionality and governmental policy in the Nazi period. What Katz does not take into account is that a twelve-year period in a twentieth-century industrialized society lends itself more readily to documentation than a five-hundred-year period, most of which is historically and geographically situated in the midst of a pre-industrial “virgin wasteland,” nor does he significantly engage the discourse generated by Native American scholars in recent years. It does not, however, take a paragon of intellectual prowess to deduce an implied intent to “destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group,” from the events that transpired in the process of “depopulating” the New World–a slaughter that Katz patently refuses to define as “genocide” even though it conforms precisely to [End Page 358] the definition of the phenomenon as outlined by Raphael Lemkin, who coined the term in his 1944 Axis Rule in Occupied Europe. 23 The murder of 96 percent of any given population does not occur “inadvertently,” especially when members of that group are viewed by their assassins as belonging to a separate (and inferior) national, ethnic, racial and religious order.

Furthermore, there is evidence to suggest that the introduction of diseases to the Native populations of North America was anything but an incidental by-product of “westward expansion.” In what is likely the world’s first documented case of genocide accomplished by bacterial means, Lord Jeffrey Amherst suggested that smallpox-infected blankets be distributed to the Ottawa and Lenape peoples, stating in a 1763 letter to his subordinate, Colonel Henry Bouquet, “You will do well to [infect] the Indians by means of blankets as well as to try every other method that can serve to extirpate this [execrable] race.” 24

This statement indicates that the annihilation of the Indian population by way of disease was neither arbitrary nor incidental to the aims of the European settler population and its government. Even as early as 1763, the settler population and its sovereign representatives acted in full cognizance of the impact their introduction of disease would have on the Native populations. Stannard points out, with regard to the “enemy microbe” argument, that by focusing almost entirely on disease, by displacing responsibility for the mass killing onto an army of invading microbes, contemporary authors increasingly have created the impression that the eradication of those tens of millions of people was inadvertent–a sad, but both inevitable and “unintended consequence” of human migration and progress. This is a modern version of what Alexander Saxton recently has described as the “soft side of anti-Indian racism” that emerged in America in the nineteenth century and that incorporated “expressions of regret over the fate of the Indians into narratives that traced the inevitability of their extinction. Ideologically,” Saxton adds, “the effect was to exonerate individuals, parties, nations, of any moral blame for what history had decreed.” In fact, however, the near-total destruction of the Western Hemisphere’s Native people was neither inadvertent nor inevitable. 25

Survivor testimony and statistical records from the Nazi death camps reveal that the uncontrolled spread of disease among inmates was also a major factor contributing to the death toll during the Nazi Holocaust, but that argument has never been forwarded in favor of exonerating the perpetrators–at least not in serious scholarship on the subject.

If, as Yehuda Bauer contends, “[t]here was no governmental intention to exterminate the victim population” in the Americas, how else are we to understand the now well-known statement attributed to General Philip Henry Sheridan at [End Page 359] Fort Cobb in January of 1889: “The only good Indian is a dead Indian?” 26 While Bauer concedes that “important figures in the U.S. administration expressed genocidal hopes and intentions,” he still insists that “there was no clear governmental policy of total murder.” 27 It would seem redundant, in this context, to point to the innumerable studies that have been conducted since 1945 in the attempt to ascertain whether or not Adolf Hitler himself had issued the order for the Final Solution.

The introduction of diseases to indigenous populations was accompanied by a systematic destruction of “the indigenous agricultural base [in order to] impose starvation conditions upon entire peoples, dramatically lowering their resistance to disease and increasing their susceptibility to epidemics.” 28 What is more, the ideology of Manifest Destiny is itself founded on an implied intent to kill–it is the “central constituent ideology translated into action” that Bauer posits as the defining characteristic that sets the Nazi Holocaust apart from all other genocidal campaigns in the history of humanity.

Fortunately, pseudo-scholarly revisionists who would deny the Nazi atrocities have been properly (and legally) excluded from legitimate academic and public discourse in many countries–Germany, Austria, France and Canada among them. But, As Ward Churchill has argued in A Little Matter of Genocide: Holocaust and Denial in the Americas 1492–Present: “the ugly enterprise of Holocaust denial has a flip side–indeed, a mirror image–which is equally objectionable but which has been anything but marginalized by the academy, popular media, or the public at large.” 29 According to Churchill, exclusivists insisting on the uniqueness of the Nazi Holocaust succeed in “outstripping the neo-nazis” in terms of denial:

Whereas the latter content themselves with denying the authenticity of a single genocidal process, exclusivists deny, categorically and out of hand, the validity of myriad genocides. Yet, unlike the neonazis, those holding to the postulates of Jewish exclusivism are not only treated as being academically credible, but are accorded a distinctly preferential treatment among the arbiters of scholarly integrity. 30

Manifest Destiny: My Brothers’ Killer

Cogent arguments have been made to suggest that the same notion of creating space for the “master race” is as germane to the ideological framework of Hitler’s Lebensraumpolitik as it is to the U.S. government’s doctrine of Manifest Destiny: In each instance, the extermination of “inferior races” is justified in the interest of making way for a “superior race” of peoples. 31 According to [End Page 360] Hitler biographer John Toland, the Führer is known to have “expressed admiration for the ‘efficiency’ of the American genocide campaign against the Indians, viewing it as a forerunner for his own plans and programs.” 32 Even Steven Katz concedes that the “depopulation of the New World” was a “salient precursor” to the Nazi Holocaust. 33 Thus, the American Holocaust might be viewed as the prototype for the extermination of the Jews in Europe. At the very least, the event must be seen as a predecessor to the Nazi Holocaust.

While Hitler’s policy of Lebensraumpolitik has been vilified and condemned for the toll it took in terms of human lives–even in the Historians’ Debate, the essential criminality and moral reprehensibility of the Nazi regime was not challenged–heroes are made of men in America whose words were inspired by the same kind of thinking and whose actions resulted in the murder of millions of human beings considered to be members of “inferior” civilizations. Theodore Roosevelt, in The Strenuous Life, writes, in 1901:

Of course our whole national history has been one of expansion . . . That the barbarians recede or are conquered, with the attendant fact that peace follows their retrogression or conquest is due solely to the power of the mighty civilized races which have not lost the fighting instinct, and which by their expansion are gradually bringing peace to the red wastes where the barbarian peoples of this world hold sway. 34

Hannah Arendt, in the Origins of Totalitarianism, identifies metaphysical Jew-hatred as one element in the “subterranean stream of Western history” that subsequently translated into the political anti-Semitic consciousness in Europe and constituted the defining principle of Hitler’s Nazi regime. 35 Similarly, Richard Drinnon argues that the “national metaphysics of Indian-hating was central to the formation of national identity and political policy in the United States.” 36

The crucial issue at stake here is that, according to Drinnon’s analysis, this national metaphysics of Indian-hating rested on the “collective refusal to conceive of Native Americans as persons.” 37 Had the people of Europe–Jews and Gentiles alike–recognized these “barbarians” to be human entities and embraced them as siblings in the “family of man,” they might well have foreseen the fate that would befall civilized populations in Europe just a few short years later because, as Richard Drinnon points out in Facing West: The Metaphysics of Indian-Hating and Empire Building:

The sober truth was that the white man’s burden of Winning the West was crushing global folly. The West was quite literally nowhere–or everywhere, which was to say the same thing. For Homer’s Greeks and North American tribal peoples alike, the West was the land beyond, Spiritland, the land of [End Page 361] mystery, of death and of life eternal. It was not a Dark and bloody Ground to be “won.” But for Anglo-Americans it was exactly that, the latest conquest. Yet how could they conclusively “win” it? If the West was at bottom a form of society [as James Turner contended in “The Problem of the West”] then on our round earth, Winning the West amounted to no less than winning the world. It could be finally and decisively “won” only by rationalizing (Americanizing, Westernizing, modernizing) the world, and that meant conquering the land beyond, banishing mystery, and negating or extirpating other peoples, so the world would be subject to the regimented reason of one settlement culture with its professedly self-evident middle-class values. 38

Hitler’s Lebensraumpolitik was not without precedent or parallel. Four centuries after Columbus, the ideology of a master race had firmly established itself on American soil. A “color line” had been drawn, and it was clear that, in the national consciousness as in public policy, “Native Americans were natives and not Americans . . . the irreducible prerequisite of being an American, was to be of European stock.” 39 The color line drawn between the

Children of Light, the light of the Gospel, of Enlightenment institutions, law and order, progress, philanthropy, freedom, Americanization, modernization, forced urbanization . . . and the Children of Darkness, “savages” who stood in the way of the redemption and the rationalization of the world . . . unmistakably shaped national patterns of violence by establishing whom one could kill under propitious circumstances and thereby represented a prime source of the American way of inflicting death. 40

The hidden narratives of the master race and Manifest Destiny governing our understanding of American history distort perceptions of our own historiography. The ideology of Manifest Destiny–the fantasy and the fancy of the master race–is transferred from one generation to another so that there is no need for the kind of propaganda machinery required to make “willing executioners” of “ordinary men” and women in Germany. Americans, in their drive to forge “one Nation under God,” fought with “God on their side.” 41 Stannard, in this regard, explains that the Eurocentric racial contempt for the indigenous peoples . . . reflected in scholarly writings of this sort is now so complete and second nature to most Americans that it has passed into popular lore and common knowledge of the “every schoolboy knows” variety. No intent to distort the truth is any longer necessary. All that is required, once the model is established, is the recitation of rote learning as it passes from one uncritical generation to the next. 42 [End Page 362]

Giorgio Agamben has argued against the use of the term Holocaust as a descriptor for the Nazi extermination of the Jews because “Jews were exterminated not in a mad and giant holocaust but exactly as Hitler had announced, ‘as lice,’ which is to say as bare life.” 43 The notorious California Indian-killer H. L. Hall justified the murder of Native infants based on the argument that “a nit would make a louse.” John Chivington, commanding colonel in the infamous Sand Creek Massacre, reformulated the sentiment to justify similar actions with the statement “Nits make lice.” 44 Perplexing in this context is that Hitler’s perception of the Jews as “life unworthy of living,” that is, as “lice” or “bare life,” is received with moral outrage in the scholarly community and in public consciousness in the U.S. and elsewhere. But when Indians are placed on the same level of the “evolutionary scale” and assigned the same status in the biopolitical order, it becomes a justifiable sacrifice made in the name of “progress.”

Hitler’s willing executioners and the ordinary men and women of Germany had to be convinced that the Jewish population was not human; they had, after all, for centuries prior, lived and worked side by side with these people who were systematically exterminated as “like lice.”

Before the Final Solution could be implemented, the Jewish population of Europe had to be reduced to the level of “bare life.” But for the American settlers, the notion that the life form to be clear-cut from the vast, “unpopulated” wilderness in order to make way for their American way of life was somehow not human ranked among those truths held to be self-evident; the “execrable race” of red men and women was viewed from the very onset as existing at the level of “bare life.”

And yet, from a perspective that acknowledges the essential humanity of indigenous populations and the sophistication of the established forms of social organization, governance, and religious ritual prevailing among the indigenous populations at the time of contact, it becomes clear that, while the Nazi Holocaust was indeed unique in scope and in kind to the twentieth century, the American Holocaust was, as Stannard has stated, “far and away, the most massive act of genocide in the history of the world.” 45

Fortunately, Hitler was stopped before he could consummate the Final Solution. But some contend that Uncle Sam’s willing executioners are still today engaged in the effort to eradicate what remains of the indigenous population in North America. For others, the loss of Native lives and lifeways cannot be acknowledged as homicidal, genocidal, or suicidal because the “savage” is not–however ostentatiously liberal-minded individuals and institutions in this country may contend otherwise–considered fully human: “we” are not related. While a revisionist narrative of the West would attempt to suffuse its world-view with a politically correct moral underpinning by making superficial [End Page 363] linguistic concessions, no longer applying such terms as “savage” and “primitive” to indigenous peoples, contemporary scholarship still draws its insights and impulses from the same body of research and the same doctrine of universal superiority it now seeks to disavow and revile. The appearance of euphemisms such as “ethnocide” and “depopulation” applied to the genocide committed against Native populations is just one index of the continued resistance to the notion that this devastation involves a human tragedy.

Nominally, indigenous peoples have been grudgingly adopted into the “family of man” in the prevailing paradigms of Western thought. Phenomenologically, they are still today perceived not as human others, but in fact as a separate (and inferior) “species.” Depending on one’s interpretation of the Latin siluaticus (of the wood; belonging to a wood), from which the term “savage” is derived, one might suspect that, in the Western biopolitical order, the “savage life” acquires the status of one less than bare life or Homo sacer. If that is the case, then what occurred in this country must be viewed as a gigantic bonfire in which neither mice, lice, nor men, women or children were sacrificed and burned for the sake of clear-cutting a space for the master race–what was sacrificed here were merely logs. Driftwood. Dead weight. Useless waste. In the world of the uniqueness proponents, the “depopulation” of the New World is on a par with “deforestation.”

What is perhaps “unique” about the Nazi Holocaust is that it represents the first incidence in history of genocidal assault directed at an assimilated, “civilized” (and therefore human) population in central Europe. 46 Katz refers to the phenomenon as one of “Judeocide.” It might, however, more accurately be termed fratricide–brothers killing brothers–squabbling sons of the same God in a serial rerun of Cain and Abel. This is not to imply that fratricide is any less grievous a crime against humanity than genocide, merely to clarify the relationship of spiritual kinship existing between perpetrators and victims in the Nazi Holocaust and the way this works to influence our perception of the event’s primacy. It could in fact be argued that fratricide is indeed the more heinous crime since it involves the extermination of life that is clearly defined as “human” in the Judeo-Christian paradigm. Brothers killing brothers is classified as a mortal sin by the religious doctrines governing moral standards in both religions, but brothers killing savages is apparently sanctioned by the moral dictates of both these dominant world religions. If the ideology of Manifest Destiny is, on the other hand, subsumed under the mandate to “be fruitful and multiply,” then the extermination of indigenous populations is indeed ordained by the supreme deity common to the Christian and the Judaic faiths. From this perspective, mass murder is the implied mandate of Manifest Destiny.

Churchill speaks in terms of the need for a “denazification . . . a fundamental alteration in the consciousness of this country.” 47 I would suggest that “de-manifestation” [End Page 364] is a more apt designation for the paradigmatic shift requisite for decentering the hegemonistic reign of the “master narratives” of Manifest Destiny and the master race that govern our understanding of history as it relates to national identity in the United States. Thinking in terms of “de-manifestation” has the advantage of disaggregating the specific modalities of similar, but not identical, historical phenomena and of dislocating–geographically and intellectually–the source of the “problem” from the site of European history to that of American history. What follows is an attendant shift in temporal focus that allows us to properly place the postulates of Manifest Destiny and the master race in historically correct chronological order with relation to the subsequent emergence of theories of Lebensraumpolitik and the assumed superiority of the Aryan race on the European continent. Whereas “de-nazification” clearly connotes a “thing of the past,” “de-manifestation” implies a present, “manifest” reality. From this vantage point, the German Sonderweg is rerouted and an already trammeled trail of rampant plundering, pillage, and mass murder is revealed to have been blazed in the forward wake of the historical caesura that the Nazi Holocaust represents.

Holocaust in Contemporary Context: Collective Suicide

Most importantly, perhaps, what distinguishes the American Holocaust from the Nazi Holocaust is what is at stake today. The Nazi Holocaust represents a historical event that threatened the entire Jewish population of Europe. Relegating this event to the archive of oblivion would involve a fatal miscalculation resulting in wholesale moral bankruptcy for the entire Western world. But the worldwide Jewish population can hardly be said to be at risk of extermination today–certainly not in the United States. American Jews stepped up their efforts to direct attention to the Nazi Holocaust at a time when they were by far the wealthiest, best-educated, most influential, in-every-way-most-successful group in American society–a group that, compared to most other identifiable minority groups, suffered no measurable discrimination and no disadvantages on account of that minority status. 48

Norman Finkelstein cites the Jewish income in the United States at double that of non-Jews and points out that sixteen of the forty wealthiest Americans are Jews, as are 40 percent of Nobel prizewinners in science and economics, 20 percent of professors at major universities and 40 percent of partners in law firms in New York and Washington. 49

Native Americans, by contrast, have long been subject to the most extreme poverty of any sector in the present North American population, and still have the highest rate of suicide of any other ethnic group on the continent. 50 High-school [End Page 365] dropout rates are as high as 70 percent in some communities. As Anishinabeg activist and Harvard-educated scholar Winona LaDuke notes with regard to the Lakota population in South Dakota: “Alcoholism, unemployment, suicide, accidental death and homicide rates are still well above the national average.” 51 Alcoholism, intergenerational posttraumatic stress, and a spate of social and economic ills continue to plague these communities in the aftermath of the American Holocaust.

As Peter Novik has made abundantly clear in his study of the way the Holocaust functions as a sort of “civil religion” and signifier of identity for American Jews, much of the commemoration rhetoric and practice propagated in this country centers on maintaining a consensual symbol of unity for American Jews who thus experience the Holocaust “vicariously.” As Novik states, while most American Jews (and Gentiles) may be saddened, dismayed, or shocked by the Nazi Holocaust, there is little evidence to suggest that they have actually been traumatized by it. 52

The Americanization of the Holocaust, according to Novik’s analysis, serves a symbolic function for American Jews, ascribing victim status to a community that demonstrates little sign of actual victimization in a culture where the victim is victor. Norman Finkelstein, the vociferous Goldhagen critic who lost most of his family in the death camps and ghettoes of Nazi-occupied Europe, has expressed similar views. His forthcoming publication asserts that the “Holocaust industry” was born with the Six-Day War in June of 1967. Before that, there was little mention of the Holocaust in American life. He argues that the development of the “Holocaust industry” in the United States is part of a strategic campaign to justify American political interests in Israel. 53

This is not to deny or diminish the clear and present danger in the ominous resurgence of anti-Semitic sentiments reflected in isolated incidences of racial violence against Jews and Jewish institutions both here and abroad. However, the material realities confronting the Native American population remain, in many instances, comparable to those prevailing in Third World countries. The Native American experience of persecution is not a vicarious one. For substantial portions of this population, it is a lived reality.

What is more, an unrelenting sentiment of Indian-hating persists in this country:

There is a peculiar kind of hatred in the northwoods, a hatred born of the guilt of privilege, a hatred born of living with three generations of complicity in the theft of lives and lands. What is worse is that each day, those who hold this position of privilege must come face to face with those whom they have dispossessed. To others who rightfully should share in the complicity and the guilt, Indians are far away and long ago. But in reservation border towns, Indians [End Page 366] are ever present. . . . The poverty of dispossession is almost overwhelming. So is the poverty of complicity and guilt. In America, poverty is relative, but it still causes shame. That shame, combined with guilt and a feeling of powerlessness, creates an atmosphere in which hatred buds, blossoms, and flourishes. The hatred passes from father to son and from mother to daughter. Each generation feels the hatred and it penetrates deeper to justify a myth. 54

Attempts on the part of American Indians to transcend chronic, intergenerational maladies introduced by the settler population (for example, in the highly contested Casino industry, in the ongoing battles over tribal sovereignty, and so on) are challenged tooth and nail by the U.S. government and its “ordinary” people. Flexibility in transcending these conditions has been greatly curtailed by federal policies that have “legally” supplanted our traditional forms of governance, outlawed our languages and spirituality, manipulated our numbers and identity, usurped our cultural integrity, viciously repressed the leaders of our efforts to regain self-determination, and systematically miseducated the bulk of our youth to believe that this is, if not just, at least inevitable.” 55 Today’s state of affairs in America, both with regard to public memory and national identity, represents a flawless mirror image of the situation in Germany vis-à-vis Jews and other non-Aryan victims of the Nazi regime. 56

Collective indifference to these conditions on the part of both white and black America is a poor reflection on the nation’s character. This collective refusal to acknowledge the genocide further exacerbates the aftermath in Native communities and hinders the recovery process. This, too, sets the American situation apart from the German-Jewish situation: Holocaust denial is seen by most of the world as an affront to the victims of the Nazi regime. In America, the situation is the reverse: victims seeking recovery are seen as assaulting American ideals.

But what is at stake today, at the dawn of a new millennium, is not the culture, tradition, and survival of one population on one continent on either side of the Atlantic. What is at stake is the very future of the human species. LaDuke, in her most recent work, contextualizes the issues from a contemporary perspective:

Our experience of survival and resistance is shared with many others. But it is not only about Native people. . . . In the final analysis, the survival of Native America is fundamentally about the collective survival of all human beings. The question of who gets to determine the destiny of the land, and of the people who live on it–those with the money or those who pray on the land–is a question that is alive throughout society. 57 [End Page 367]

“There is,” as LaDuke reminds us, “a direct relationship between the loss of cultural diversity and the loss of biodiversity. Wherever Indigenous peoples still remain, there is also a corresponding enclave of biodiversity.” 58 But, she continues,

The last 150 years have seen a great holocaust. There have been more species lost in the past 150 years than since the Ice Age. (During the same time, Indigenous peoples have been disappearing from the face of the earth. Over 2,000 nations of Indigenous peoples have gone extinct in the western hemisphere and one nation disappears from the Amazon rainforest every year.) 59

It is not about “us” as indigenous peoples–it is about “us” as a human species. We are all related. At issue is no longer the “Jewish question” or the “Indian problem.” We must speak today in terms of the “human problem.” And it is this “problem” for which not a “final,” but a sustainable, viable solution must be found–because it is no longer a matter of “serial genocide,” it has become one of collective suicide. As Terrence Des Pres put it, in The Survivor: “At the heart of our problems is that nihilism which was all along the destiny of Western culture: a nihilism either unacknowledged even as the bombs fell or else, as with Hitler or Stalin, demonically proclaimed as the new salvation.” 60

All of us must now begin thinking and acting in the dimension and in the interest of the human species–an intellectual domain of vita activa that indigenous people have inhabited since time immemorial. It is this modality of thought as a process of reflection that the “civilized” nations must learn from the “savage” ones. Vine Deloria, in “Native American Spirituality,” has attempted to clarify this distinction:

American Indians look backwards in time to the creation of the world and view reality from the perspective of the one species that has the capability to reflect on the meaning of things. This attitude is generally misunderstood by non-Indians who act as if reflection and logical thought were synonymous. But reflection is a special art and requires maturity of personality, certainty of identity, and feelings of equality with the other life forms of the world. It consists, more precisely, of allowing wisdom to approach rather than seeking answers to self-generated questions. Such an attitude, then, stands in a polarized position to the manner in which society today conducts itself. 61

It is not a matter of moral bookkeeping or of winners and losers in the battle of the most martyred minority. It is not a matter of comparative victimology, but one of collective survival. The insistence on incomparability and “uniqueness” of the Nazi Holocaust is precisely what prohibits our collective comprehension of genocide as a phenomenon of Western “civilization,” not as a reiterative series of historical events, each in its own way “unique.” It is what [End Page 368] inhibits our ability to name causes, anticipate outcomes, and, above all to engage in preemptive political and intellectual action in the face of contemporary exigencies.

In Tabori’s 1990 production Weisman and Rotgesicht, the “calculus of calamity” is taken to hilarious heights to reveal the grave truth of the matter. In his 1994 discussion of “The Contemporary German Fascination for Things Jewish,” Jack Zipes states of Weisman und Rotgesicht:

The resolution that Tabori offers, though hilarious, is meant to be taken seriously: a verbal duel so that both sides can expose themselves and realize how ridiculous it is to quarrel with one another. Hilarity becomes a nomadic means of questioning majority culture and of reversing identities so that understanding between different groups can be generated. 62

Ultimately, fostering a “solidarity of memory” that might fundamentally challenge majority culture must be the aim of any comparison of “minority” situations, but the conclusion Zipes draws from this particular conflation of identities in conflict is flawed by a misapprehension of the play’s historically and culturally specific geographic setting in the Western wilderness and its relationship to indigenous peoples. As I have argued elsewhere, while Tabori does not specify the site of the duel in the desert, the play could be interpreted to be set in what is now the state of Colorado. 63 This is the site of the Sand Creek Massacre–a historical event with culturally specific meaning to the Native American people. It is at once a site of sanctity, of sacrifice, and of sacrilege. It represents the rampant desecration that has devastated an entire civilization and its way of life. But according to Jack Zipes’s analysis: “There are many parallels that one can draw with the conflict in this play: Jews and blacks in the States, or blacks and Koreans; Jews and Turks in Germany; Jews and Arabs in the Middle East.” 64 Clearly, other subaltern Others share similar relationships to other, more distant desert lands and wilderness landscapes, but Zipes’s analogies are flawed on several counts.

In the case of the conflicts between the first two groups cited, the element of violent conquest and the dispossession of lands at the heart of the American Indian-European immigrant “dispute” is absent: Jews and blacks, like Jews and Koreans, are engaged in a struggle for cultural, racial, economic, and social equity in territories to which they have been introduced as Others–either as slaves, immigrants, or refugees. In the German-Turkish situation, the “minority” group is the “alien element” or, as the German euphemism would have it, “guest workers.” None of these struggles involves legal agreements between sovereign nations–that is to say treaties between sovereign political entities–the terms of which have not been upheld by an outlaw state whose legitimacy as a “world power” is nevertheless recognized by the international community [End Page 369] .

As Seth Wolitz has stated in this regard, “the text can also be read allegorically as a version of the Israeli-Palestinian encounter between two subalterns squabbling over land which the ‘Gewittergoi’, the imperialist powers, can always regain and control.” 65 The problem with this allegory, though, is that the North American territories that function as the setting and backdrop for the territories at issue in the Indian-immigrant conflict have yet to be manumitted from colonialist bondage. The lands remain in control of the “imperialist power.”

Precisely this is central to understanding the double-edged ironies and conflicts addressed in Weisman und Rotgesicht. The setting involves a geographical site that is readily associated with the actual site of a massacre and, as such, the site itself is ambiguous: it signifies both a site of (ongoing) sanctity and one of (ongoing) desecration. If the parallel is to be drawn between the Jewish and American Indian subaltern situations, the course of history as well as the present state of affairs must be taken into account: the fact is that Hitler lost the war and the State of Israel was formed as partial reparation for the losses sustained by the Jewish population as a result. However, the United States government, even as it sought to help absorb the losses sustained by the Jewish population in Europe not only through its support of Israel, but by offering refuge to Jewish immigrants in territories seized from the indigenous populations, won its war against the Indians. 66 The crucial difference between a regime whose demise was rooted in genocide and one for whom genocide was its foundational principle and the prerequisite to its existence is elided by this analogy.

Moreover, at the level of sheer abstraction, the solidarity between subaltern groups that the Jewish-American tradition of “spoofing” Jewish-Indian relations seeks to evoke is marred by its unilateral initiative–emanating from the Jewish perspective in the context of a Judeo-Christian framework that demonstrates little regard for or knowledge of the cultural and religious world-views of Native Americans, either as a collective entity or as heterogeneous individual nations–each with its own relationship to specific geographic sites within the boundaries of occupied territories now defined as the United States.

The land, “the Wilderness” or “the Desert” which has come to signify a “wasteland” in the symbolic and spiritual orders of other peoples, has never been associated with anything but abundance and eternal sustenance for indigenous peoples because revelation is rooted in the life of reflection on and with the land, not in catastrophic upheaval or divine intervention. Vine Deloria explains the “problem” of misconstrued understandings of this relationship in this way:

Almost every tribal religion was based on land. . . . Some of the old chiefs felt that, because generations of their ancestors had been buried on the lands and because the sacred events of their religion had taken place on the lands, they [End Page 370] were obligated to maintain the tribal lands against new kinds of exploitation. . . . Especially among the Pueblos, Hopi, and Navajo, the lands of the creation and emergence traditions are easily identified and are regarded as places of utmost significance. . . . Government officials have ruthlessly disregarded the Indians’ pleas for the restoration of their most sacred lands, and the constant dispute between Indians and whites centers around this subject. 67

If anything sets the American Indian apart from other victims of genocide or oppression in this country, it is this:

Native Americans are not, in the strictest sense of the word, a “diasporic” people. 68 While the policies of Indian Removal certainly served to disperse, displace, disparage, and dislocate Native cultures and identities from coast to coast, imposing upon Native North American peoples conditions of existence that might be described as “diasporic” in a Judeo-Christian or postcolonialist context, I would caution against the appropriation of the diasporic metaphor with regard to the state of Native North America. The traditional Deuteronomic narrative of the Diaspora implies divine punishment in response to a breach of covenant. In order for a “diasporic” situation to prevail, the peoples of the diaspora must have entered into a contract with the divinely intervening deity. But indigenous peoples of this country stood in no such relationship to the Judeo-Christian God and his sovereign representatives on Earth. The notion of a “Native Diaspora” in the United States presupposes an adherence to the doctrine of Manifest Destiny as divine intervention on the part of the Judeo-Christian God in His effort to create “living space” or Lebensraum for His children–“chosen” and “unchosen” alike. Even if we were to accept the contemporary permutations of the concept in the postcolonialist attempt to subvert and decenter traditional narratives of nationalism and imperialism as these relate to identity formation and the location of culture, the diasporic metaphor is inapplicable because the peoples and lands at issue here have yet to be manumitted from neo-colonialist bondage.

Uprootedness, homelessness, exile–these are maladies forced upon Native North American populations by the invading Europeans. What Simone Weil has written about this affliction in reference to Euro-African relations in Africa applies equally to the situation on Turtle Island.

[T]he white man carries [uprootedness] about with him wherever he goes. The disease has even penetrated the heart of the African continent, which had for thousands of years, nevertheless, been made up of villages. These black people at any rate, when nobody came to massacre them, torture them, or reduce them to slavery, knew how to live happily on their land. Contact with us is making them lose the art. That ought to make us wonder whether even the [End Page 371] black man, although the most primitive of all colonized peoples, hadn’t after all more to teach us than to learn from us. 69

Native Americans have been “extirpated” as “savages” and as “barbarians” on their own soil. That soil has been contaminated by pestilence, poisons, toxins, oil spills, nuclear waste dumps and all the other deadly by-products Western “civilization” inevitably leaves as its legacy. Sacred sites have been effaced; graves have been robbed. Synagogues and churches can be rebuilt, but Mount Rushmore is not likely to be restored to its original glory by geological cosmetic surgery. Taken literally, James Young’s figurative language in “America’s Holocaust: Memory and the Politics of Identity,” is laced with mordant irony:

By themselves monuments are of little value, mere stones in the landscape. But as part of a nation’s rites or the objects of a people’s national pilgrimage, they are imbued with national soul and memory. For traditionally the state-sponsored memory of a national past aims to affirm the righteousness of a nation’s birth, even its divine election. The matrix of a nation’s monuments emplots the story of ennobling events, of triumphs over barbarism, and recalls the martyrdom of those who gave their lives in the struggle for national existence–who in the martyrological refrain, died so that a nation might live. In assuming the idealized forms and meanings assigned this era by the state, memorials tend to concretize particular historical interpretations. They suggest themselves in indigenous, even geological outcroppings in a national landscape; in time, such idealized memory grows as natural to the eye as the landscape in which it stands.” 70 [emphasis mine]

The irony of his statements is certainly not lost on Young, who concludes his discussion with a section titled “Against a Culture of Competing Catastrophes,” and states: “In the end we must recognize that memory cannot be divorced from the actions taken in its behalf, and that memory without consequences may even contain the seeds of its own destruction.” 71 The “national monument” at Mount Rushmore represents the geographic and symbolic site in which the principles of Manifest Destiny and the master race are literally set in stone. 72

Only when the sanctity in the hearts and minds of the indigenous population of this “vast, untamed wilderness” itself has been duly acknowledged–when the dominant culture finally comes to grips with the fact that the ground they walk upon is not like a temple to the American Indian–it is the temple–then, and only then, will the nature of the devastation and desecration be driven home to them.

Once that has been established, the essentially suicidal nature of Western intellectual endeavor will also become apparent. The savage–an entity reduced in the Western scheme of things to the level of “bare (and hence [End Page 372] disposable) life” on a par with the plant–reveals himself, in the Native American world-view, to be precisely that: nothing more and nothing less than the tree itself–equals in a covenant and an evolutionary chain that does not shackle or bind, but merely bonds. To the Native American sense and sensibility, the tree represents life itself, and there is no split between the life of the tree and the life of the human. They are holistically, historically, and happily related in the nexus of mutually sustainable symbiosis.

If, following Agamben, “homo sacer is life that may be killed but not sacrificed . . . life that may be killed by anyone without committing homicide,” then no crime has been committed in the American Holocaust, nor is the dearth of “academic moves,” “scholarly turns,” and “paradigmatic shifts” toward a fundamental rethinking and reshaping of American national identity of any consequence in global, local, or national terms. 73 There has been no “human” sacrifice in the conquest of the West. Nothing but the forest has been lost to the victor culture. But, if Native theorists, religious leaders, and activists who have survived the holocausts are correct in asserting, as they do, that the fate of the forest will be that of man, then the master race is, in fact, engaged in the specter of committing collective suicide–exercising the authority of the sovereign over life and death on all our behalf.

If we are to divert the disaster, Mount Rushmore must be placed on a par with burning synagogues, whose fires can never be extinguished, and with black churches in the South subjected to racially motivated acts of arson. If the “Jews are the Indians of Germany,” then Mount Rushmore is Bitburg, writ large and indelible, engraved not only in our collective memory, but spat on the very floor of the temple–a civic memorial to a people and a way of life sacrificed to someone else’s “God.” 74 But it is also here that the master race, ex altera terra, has signed and sealed its own fate on this continent as that of homo sacer:

A life that, excepting itself in double exclusion from the real context of both the profane and the religious forms of life, is defined solely by virtue of having entered into an intimate symbiosis with death without, nevertheless, belonging to the world of the deceased. 75

The stones speak volumes that continue to fall on the deaf ears of an American public more German than the Germans in its persistent refusal to come to terms with a “little matter of genocide,” choosing instead to adopt as its own the foundling stone of a historical marker–that coveted historical caesura everyone wants to have, but no one wants to own in the “Americanization of the Holocaust.” 76 But in the canyons of deep memory, the song of the stones still echoes and rings true for the three million survivors of the American Holocaust.

Lilian Friedberg is a bilingual published author and political activist with a master’s degree in the humanities from the University of Chicago and is currently a doctoral candidate in Germanic Studies at the University of Illinois at Chicago.
Notes

1. The reader of this paper is instructed to note that the linguistic and literary intent of the writer includes a deliberate transgression of traditional boundaries in scholarship. This paper thus combines and at the same time challenges elements of various genres: from personal narrative, to scholarly discourse, to critical analysis and creative writing in a parodic idiom that, at times, borders on the “sacrilegious.” It is written from the subject position of a German-Jewish-Native-American-(Anishinabe)-Female and, as a “cross-genred” literary experiment, seeks to reflect the cultural hybridity of its author.

2. Seth Wolitz, “From Parody to Redemption: George Tabori’s Weisman und Rotgesicht,” in Verkörperte Geschichtsentwürfe: George Taboris Theaterarbeit, ed. Peter Höyng (Tübingen: Francke Verlag, 1998) 151-76, 163.

3. Mark Slobin, “From Vilna to Vaudeville: Minikes and Among the Indians,” The Drama Review 24, no. 3 (September 1980): 18.

4. Raphael Seligmann, Mit beschränkter Hoffnung: Juden, Deutsche und Israelis (Hamburg: Hoffman und Campe, 1991), 97-8; cited in Sander L. Gilman, Jews in Today’s German Culture (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995), 19.

5. Lucy Dawidowicz, The Holocaust and the Historians (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981), 17. In Dawidowicz’s earlier work The War against the Jews 1933-1945 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1975), her discussion of the Madagascar Plan speaks in terms of the “Madagascar reservation . . . a reservation for Jews that would become truly their final destination” (150-66) [emphasis mine].

6. Cited in Peter Novik, The Holocaust in American Life (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1999), 200.

7. Novik, The Holocaust in American Life, 198.

8. See also Henry R. Huttenbach, “The Psychology and Politics of Genocide Denial: A Comparison of Four Case Studies,” in Studies in Comparative Genocide, eds. Levon Chorbajian and George Shirinian (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1999), 216: “Denial has become an integral part of genocide; not to take this aspect into consideration is to fail to comprehend a major component of the dynamics of extermination.”

9. At the time of this writing, Finkelstein’s most recent work The Holocaust Industry: Reflections on the Exploitation of Jewish Suffering was scheduled for publication by Verso in July 2000. Citations here are from an 11 June 2000 review by Bryan Appleyard published in the online version of The Sunday Times (http://www.Sunday-times.co.uk/news/pages/sti/2000/06/11/stirevnws02006.html).

10. Novik, The Holocaust in American Life, 13.

11. Saul Friedländer, Memory, History, and the Extermination of the Jews of Europe (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993), 23.

12. Ernst Reinhard Piper, ed., Historikerstreit: Die Dokumentation der Konstervers um die Einzigartigkeit der national-sozialistischen Judenvernichtung (Munich: Piper Verlag, 1987); in English, James Knowlton and Truett Cates, trans., Forever in the Shadow of Hitler? Original Documents of the Historikerstreit, the Controversy Concerning the Singularity of the Holocaust (Atlantic Highlands nj: Humanities Press, 1993).

13. Gerald Vizenor, Manifest Manners: Narrative on Postindian Survivance (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1994), 4.

14. George Tabori, “Hamlet in Blue,” Theatre Quarterly 20 (1975): 117-32.

15. Henryk Broder, “Die Germanisierung des Holocaust,” in Volk und Wahn (Munich: Goldman Verlag, 1996), 214. English-language translations of “The Germanization of the Holocaust” and other essays by the same author are forthcoming in Lilian M. Friedberg and Sander L. Gilman, eds., To Each His Own: Selected Essays by German-Jewish Essayist Henryk Broder. Indeed, as Broder’s essay implies, a veritable cottage industry has developed around the Holocaust. Titles like Edward Alexander’s “Stealing the Holocaust,” (Midstream [November 1980]) reflect the lunatic proportions that characterize the debates. See also Norman Finkelstein at note 9 above.

16. James Axtell, Beyond 1492: Encounters in Colonial North America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), 262-63.

17. Finkelstein’s article was subsequently reprinted–together with an equally scathing critique of Goldhagen’s thesis and methodology by Ruth Bettina Birn, a recognized authority on the archives Goldhagen cites as sources for his research–in A Nation on Trial: The Goldhagen Thesis and Historical Truth (New York: Henry Holt, 1998).

18. William Greider, One World, Ready or Not: The Manic Logic of Global Capitalism (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), 368.

19. Dominick LaCapra, Representing the Holocaust: History, Theory, Trauma (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1996), 57.

20. Steven Katz, “The Uniqueness of the Holocaust: The Historical Dimension,” in Is the Holocaust Unique?: Perspectives on Comparative Genocide, ed. Alan Rosenbaum (Boulder CO: Westview Press, 1996), 21.

21. See Katz’s chapter on “The Depopulation of the New World in the Sixteenth Century” in The Holocaust in Historical Context: Volume I: The Holocaust and Mass Death before the Modern Age (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), 87-91.

22. Katz, The Holocaust in Historical Context, 59.

23. Raphael Lemkin, Axis Rule in Occupied Europe (Washington DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1944), cited in Katz, Holocaust in Historical Context, 125. Lemkin’s definition has been reprinted in most standard works on genocide. For the reader who may be unfamiliar with the text of Article 2 of the UN Convention on Genocide adopted by the General Assembly in November 1948, which was based on Lemkin’s original delineation of the term and the crime’s parameters, I reprint it here: “In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such:

1. Killing members of the group.

2. Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group.

3. Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part.

4. Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group.

5. Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group. (cited in Katz, Holocaust in Historical Context, 125)

Ward Churchill’s A Little Matter of Genocide: Holocaust and Denial in the Americas 1492-Present (San Francisco: City Lights Books, 1997) firmly establishes, point by point, the manner and degree to which policies and actions on the part of the U.S. government and its people conform to the definition of genocide as outlined by Lemkin and by the UN convention.

24. Lord Jeffrey Amherst, cited in Churchill, Matter of Genocide, 154.

25. David E. Stannard, American Holocaust (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), xii.

26. While sources may disagree on the exact wording of Sheridan’s now infamous statement, the sentiment, regardless of wording, is always the same. My source here is The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1955), 499. The examples cited here reflect but the tip of the iceberg in a documented litany of official and unofficial statements issued by governmental authorities and representatives of the people of the United States, which express clear and unequivocal intent to exterminate the entire indigenous population of North America.

27. Yehuda Bauer, “Comparison of Genocides” in Chorbajian and Shirinian, Studies in Comparative Genocide, 38.

28. Lenore A. Stiffarm with Phil Lane, “The Demography of Native North America,” in The State of Native America: Genocide, Colonization, and Resistance, ed. Annette Jaimes (Boston: South End Press, 1992), 33.

29. Churchill, Matter of Genocide, 63.

30. Ibid., 64.

31. Ibid., 147. See also Reginal Horsman, Race and Manifest Destiny: The Origins of American Racial Anglo-Saxonism (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981); Frank Parella, “Lebensraum and Manifest Destiny: A Comparative Study in the Justification of Expansion” (master’s thesis, Georgetown University, 1950); Albert K. Weinberg, Manifest Destiny: A Study of Nationalist Expansion in American History (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1935); Frederick Merk, Manifest Destiny and Mission in American History: A Reinterpretation (New York: Knopf, 1963).

32. John Toland, paraphrased in Stannard, American Holocaust, 153.

33. Katz, Holocaust in Historical Context, 97.

34. Cited in Richard Drinnon, Facing West: The Metaphysics of Indian-Hating and Empire Building (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1980), 232.

35. Hannah Arendt, The Origins of Totalitarianism (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1973), ix. Arendt also identifies the doctrine of the master race as an element of the same “subterranean stream,” but her American exceptionalism renders her comments in this regard of little use to an analysis of the notion of “one nation under God” as a euphemistic veil for the concept of a master race. See Arendt, Origins, 152, 206.

36. Drinnon, Facing West, 463.

37. Ibid., 463.

38. Ibid., 465.

39. Ibid., 462.

40. Ibid., 463.

41. A discussion of the role Christian ideals played in the genocide of both the Jews and the indigenous populations of the Americas oversteps the scope of this study. Elie Wiesel, unaware perhaps of his own profundity in this matter, sums up the gist of the argument quite well when he states: “All the killers were Christian. . . . The Nazi system was the consequence of a movement of ideas and followed a strict logic; it did not arise in a void but had its roots deep in a tradition that prophesied it, prepared for it, and brought it to maturity. That tradition was inseparable from the past of Christian, civilized Europe” (in Irving Abrahamson, ed., Against Silence: The Voice and Vision of Elie Wiesel [New York: Holocaust Library, 1985], 33).

42. Stannard, American Holocaust, 13.

43. Giorgio Agamben, Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life, trans. Daniel Heller-Roazen (Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 1998), 114.

44. Churchill, Matter of Genocide, 229.

45. Stannard, American Holocaust, x.

46. See also Terrence Des Pres’s (The Survivor: An Anatomy of Life in the Death Camps [Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1976], 207) assertion that “[the survivor] is the first of civilized men to live beyond the compulsions of culture” [emphasis mine].

47. Ward Churchill, “A Summary of Arguments Against the Naming of a University Residence Hall After Clinton M. Tyler” (report prepared at the request of the assistant vice chancellor for academic services, University of Colorado at Boulder, July 1981, cited in Annette Jaimes, ed., The State of Native America, 5).

48. Novik, Holocaust in American Life, 9.

49. See note 9 above.

50. Eduardo and Bonnie Duran, Native American Postcolonial Psychology (New York: SUNY Press, 1995), 40.

51. Winona LaDuke, All Our Relations: Native Struggles for Land and Life (Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 1999), 148.

52. Novik, Holocaust in American Life, 9.

53. See note 9 above.

54. Winona LaDuke, Last Standing Woman (Stillwater, MN: Voyageur Press, 1997), 127. LaDuke’s reference here is to the state of Minnesota. Her discussion centers on the particularly virulent strain of metaphysical Indian-hating that permeates those areas in direct proximity to reservations.

55. Annette Jaimes, “Sand Creek–The Morning After,” in Jaimes, The State of Native America, 8. A detailed discussion of the “legal” means employed by the U.S. government in outlawing and criminalizing various elements of native culture far exceeds the scope of this study. Churchill states, in this regard,

It may seem curious that American Indians, who had mandatorily become U.S. citizens by 1924, should “need a special statute passed in the late 1970’s [The American Indian Religious Freedom Act, 1978] to be able to utilize the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment to the Constitution.” A number of statutes and regulations promulgated during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, however, effectively criminalized a range of indigenous spiritual practices extending from the Lakota sun dance to the potlatch ceremonies of the nations of the Pacific Northwest. Further, given that many native traditions embody a concept of sacred geography, loss of lands had by the late twentieth century seriously curtailed site-specific practices of Indian spirituality (Ward Churchill, cited in Jaimes, The State of Native North America, 17).

Native and non-Native scholars have conducted a substantial amount of research on these issues.

56. The “New Age” spiritual movement’s fascination and appropriation of things Indian also presents a mirror image of the “contemporary fascination for things Jewish in Germany.” See article of the same title by Jack Zipes, in Sander Gilman and Karen Remmler, eds., Reemerging Jewish Culture in Germany: Life and Literature since 1989 (New York: New York University Press, 1994), 15-45; cf. Wendy Rose, “The Great Pretenders: Further Reflections on Whiteshamanism,” in Jaimes, The State of Native North America, 403-21.

57. LaDuke, All Our Relations, 5.

58. Ibid., 1.

59. Ibid., 1.

60. Des Pres, The Survivor, 207.

61. Vine Deloria, For this Land: Writings on Religion in America (New York: Routledge, 1999), 130.

62. Jack Zipes, “Contemporary Fascination,” 36.

63. Lilian Friedberg, “Mule Minus Forty Million Acres: Topographies of Geographic Disorientation and Redface Minstrelsy in George Tabori’s Weisman und Rotgesicht” (master’s thesis, University of Chicago, May 2000).

64. Zipes, “Contemporary Fascination,” 36.

65. Wolitz, “From Parody to Redemption,” 166.

66. Ward Churchill, speaking at the University of Chicago on 21 January 2000 made this point in his lecture on “A Little Matter of Genocide: Holocaust and Denial in the Americas 1492-Present.”

67. Deloria, For this Land, 127.

68. Any significant discussion of indigenous peoples and their relationship to the lands currently inhabited by other diasporic peoples is glaringly absent, for example, in Michael Galchnisky’s discussion of diasporism with regard to multicultural identity in the United States. See “Scattered Seeds: A Dialogue of Diasporas,” in Insider/Outsider: American Jews and Multiculturalism, eds. David Biale, Michael Galchinsky, and Susan Heschel (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998), 185-212.

69. Weil, The Need for Roots, 77.

70. James E. Young, “America’s Holocaust: Memory and the Politics of Identity,” in The Americanization of the Holocaust, ed. Helene Flanzbaum (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999), 69.

71. Ibid., 82.

72. While opinions in Native communities are divided with regard to the “Rushmore alternative”–the “Crazy Horse Monument”–it is the view of many that this monumental undertaking, initiated by European immigrants, constitutes an equally atrocious assault on the land, which only adds insult to injury, especially since Crazy Horse, throughout his life, had insisted that no graphic representations of his person be made.

73. Agamben, Homo Sacer, 101-3.

74. This is a reference to the international scandal surrounding then President Ronald Reagan’s conduct at the cemetery in Bitburg, Germany, where former SS soldiers are buried and were commemorated in 1986. For a more detailed discussion of the event and its meaning, see also David Singer, ed, Bitburg in Moral and Political Perspective (Bloomington: University Press of Indiana, 1986) and Ilya Levkov, ed., Bitburg and Beyond: Encounters in American, German, and Jewish History (New York: Shapolsky, 1987).

75. Agamben, Homo Sacer, 100.

76. Russel Means, 12 October 1992, American Indian Movement:

“All my life, I’ve had to listen to rhetoric about the United States being a model of freedom and democracy, the most uniquely enlightened and humanitarian country in history, a ‘nation of laws’ which, unlike others, has never pursued policies of conquest and aggression. I’m sure you’ve heard it before. It’s official ‘truth’ in the United States. It’s what is taught to schoolchildren and it’s the line peddled to the general public. Well, I’ve got a hot news flash for everybody here. It’s a lie. The whole thing’s a lie, and it always has been. Leaving aside the obvious points which could be raised to disprove it by blacks and Chicanos and Asian immigrants right here in North America–not to mention the Mexicans, the Nicaraguans, the Guatemalans, the Puerto Ricans, the Hawaiians, the Filipinos, the Samoans, the Tamarros of Guam, the Marshall Islanders, the Koreans, the Vietnamese, the Cubans, the Dominicans, the Granadans, the Libyans, the Panamanians, the Iraqis, and a few dozen other peoples out there who’ve suffered American invasions and occupations first hand–there’s a little matter of genocide that’s got to be taken into account right here at home. I’m talking about the genocide which has been perpetrated against American Indians, a genocide that began the instant the first of Europe’s boat people washed up on the beach of Turtle Island, a genocide that’s continuing right now, at this moment. Against Indians, there’s not a law the United States hasn’t broken, not a Crime Against Humanity it hasn’t committed, and it’s still going on” (cited in Churchill, Matter of Genocide, frontispiece).

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